微信图片_20200320120120.jpg摄影;刚杰·索木东

       摘要:部落是藏族社会的根基,史诗中岭部落从单一的血亲联盟逐渐发展成以联姻、战争为前提的部落联盟,统一了青藏高原。它艺术地再现了古代藏族社会从氏族、部族、部落到部落联盟的过程。 

       《GESAERWANGCHUAN》SHIYUNYUYUZANGMINZUSHEHUISHENGHUOTURANGZHIZHONGDEWEIDASHISHI,TAFANYINGDESHEHUIBEIJINGTONGZANGZUSHEHUIDELISHIXIANZHUANGYIYANG,“YIYOUMUWEISHENG、BULUOWEIGEN”。JIANGSHULECONGYUANSHISHEHUIMOQIDAONULISHEHUICHUQI,QINGZANGGAOYUANGEYOUMUBULUODESHENGHUOHETAMENZHIJIANFASHENGDEZHANZHENGGUSHI。

       一、血缘联盟

       YIXUEYUANWEINIUDAIDELIANMENGSHIBULUOLIANMENGFAZHANDEZUICHUDEXINGSHI,SHIYIZHONGYIXUEQINTUANTIWEISHEHUIJIBENZUZHIJIEGOUDESHEHUIZUZHIXINGSHI。

       《GESAERWANGCHUAN》ZHONGDEXUEYUANLIANMENGYINGYILINGBULUOWEIDIANXING。SHISHIMIAOSHU,LINGGUOSHUZANGZUYUANSHILIUDASHIZUZHIYIDEDONGZU,DAOLINGQUPANNEIBUSHIDAI,YILIJINGLE49DAI,ZHEISHIDELINGHAIZHISHIYIGEXIAOBULUO。HOULAIQUPANNEIBUWANGQUSAICUOMASHENGSAIBARENXIONGDI、QUWOCUOMASHENGWENBULIUZU、QUJIANGCUOMASHENGMUJIANGSIZU。ZHEISANZUGEZIFAZHAN,FENCHENGLINGZHANG、ZHONG、YOUSANXIBULUO。DAOGESAERCHENGWANGQIAN,ZHEISANXIYIYOUGEZIDESHOULING,JIZHANGXISHOULINGWEISAIBA·NIBENDAYA、ZHONGXISHOULINGWEIAOBEN·ANUHUASANG、YOUXITOULINGWEIBENJIANG·RENQINDAERLU,WAIJIAYOUCHAXIANGDANMAJIANGCHAWEISHOULINGDEDANMABULUOHEYOUJIALUODUNBAJIANCANWEISHOULINGDEJIALUOBULUODENG,XINGCHENGLEYISANZHIBULUOWEIZHONGXINDEBULUOLIANMENG。ZHEIXIEXIAOBULUOXIANGHUJIECHENGLIANMENG,GUIRONGCHACHAGEN、SANGLUN、CHAOTONGDENG“SANWANG”GUANLI,QILIANMENGJUYOUXIANGDUIDEDULIXINGHEZIYOUXING,BUNENGCHENGWEIWANQUANTONGYIDE“GUO”。GESAERSAIMACHENGWANG,JIAJINLEGEBULUOJIANDELIANXI。YOURUOGANGETOULINGHUO‘WANG’GUANLIDEBULUOLIANMENG,ZHUJIANBIANCHENGYOUYIRENTONGYIGUANLI、JUYOUJIAOGAODEGAIKUOHUA、JUTIHUADEBULUOLIANMENGJITUAN。ZHEISHIDELINGGUOSHIYIZHANG、ZHONG、YOUSANXIWEIHEXIN,LIANDAIPANGXIJINQINSHIZUBULUODELIANMENGJITUAN。ZHENGRUMOERGENSUOZHI:“YIGEBULUOYIDANFENHUAWEIJIGEBUZHIHOU,ZHEIJIGEBULUOGEZIDUZHANYIKUAILINGTUERQILINGTUXIANGHULINLA,YUSHITAMENBIANYIZONGSHIZUWEIJICHU,YIFANGYANJIEJINWEIJICHU,ZHONGXINJIEHEGENGGAOYIJIDEZUZHI,ZHEIJIUSHILIANMENG。”[1]GESAERCHENGWANGHOUDELINGGUOJIUSHUZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG。

尚品棋牌       YUZHIXIANGJINDEYOUZANGZULISHISHANGGUANYUZANGZUXIANMINQIYUANDEGUSHI。JUSHISHUJI,ZAIZANGZUXIANMINSHIYOUYALONGHEGUDEYIZHIMIHOUHELUOCHANVJIECHENGFUFUHOU,SHENGLELIUZHIHOUZI,HOUFANYANCHENGWUBAIZHI,ZAIGUWUFENPEISHANGBICICHANSHENGBUHE,GEZIFENLIE,XINGCHENGLEZANGZUYUANSHILIUDASHIZU。HOULAITUFANWANGCHAODEDIYIWEIZANPUNIECHIZANPU,ZAIBENJIAO“SHIERZHIZHE”DEYONGDAIXIA,CHENGLE“WANG”,TONGYILEYALONGZHUBULUO,JIANLILEYIYALONGWEIZHONGXINDE“XIBUYE”WANGCHAO。SHIJISHANGZHEIYESHI“YITONGZONGSHIZUWEIJICHU,YIFANGYANJIEJINWEIJICHU,ZHONGXINJIEHECHENGGENGGAOYIJIDEZUZHI”,JIBULUOLIANMENG。

       CHUSHISHUHESHISHIYIWAI,ZANGZUMINJIANYEYOUXUEYUANWEINIUDAIDEBULUOLIANMENGXIANXIANG。LIRUWEIYUQINGHAISHENGDONGNANBUDEGUOLUOZANGZUZIZHIZHOU,ZAIDANGDAIMINZHONGZHONGYOU“SANGUOLUO”DESUCHENG。QICHENGHUYUANYU“GUOLUOSANBU”,JIANGQIANBENBULUO、ASHENJIANGBULUOHEBANMABENBULUO,YUANSHUTONGYIGEZUXIANERDEMING。JU《ANDUOZHENGJIAOSHI》JIZAI,ZHEISANGEBULUOQIYUANYUYIWEIZHUSHIGUANRENBULUO,DAOQIZISUNZHUANSHIFENCHENGSANBUBULUO。ZUIHOUFAZHANCHENG“SHANG、ZHONG、XIA”SANBU。ZAIZHEISANBUQIXIA,YEYOURUOGANGEXIAOBULUO,LIRUSHANGGUOLUOANGQIANBENFENANGQIANQUDUOHEANGQIANQUMAI,ANGQIANQUDUOYOUFENLEHONGKESANBU、XIAOTOURENWUBU、QUPANGLIUBU、CUOMAHESHISANBU、ERSHIWUXIAOZHIDENGJIGEXIAOBULUOJITUAN:ANGQIANQUMAIFENSHANGMOBASHIYIGEBULUO、XIAMOBAJIUGEBULUO、HEMOCHARIMAWUBULUODENGSANGEBULUOJITUAN。TONGSHIZHONGXIAGUOLUOYEFENRUOGANGEFENZHI。DANZHUSHIGUANRENWEIQIGONGTONGDEZUXIAN[2]。SHANGSHIJIMO,ZHEISANGEBULUOJIBENJIETI,DANQIYINGXIANGZAIMINJIANYIRANCUNZAI,XIANYOUGEBULUODELAILIRENGKEYIZHUISUDAOZHEISANGEXITONG。ZAIGUOLUODELINGXIAOBULUO,DOUYIZHEISANGEXITONGWEIGENYUAN,SHIGEBULUOWEITONGYIZUYUAN。BIYAOSHIXUEYUANJIAOJINDEBULUOLIANHEZAIYIQI,YIZHIDUIWAI。SHANGSHUXIANXIANGBIAOMING,YOUTONGYIGEZUXIANFANYANERCHENGDEHOUDAISHISHUTONGYIGEGUXI。ZAIBULUOSHIDAI,TAMENYIXUEYUANWEINIUDAI,XIANGHUJIECHENGLIANMENG,YIZHICONGSHISHENGCHANLAODONG、DUIWAIKANGZHENGDENGHUODONG。BINGZAIHUNYINHENANNVGUANXISHANGYOUYANGEDEGUIDING。FANSHUTONGYIGEGUXIHUOTONGYIQINSHUBULUODERENZHIJIANJINZHITONGHUN,FOUZEBEISHIWEIDANIBUDAO,ANGZANGDEREN,JIANGYONGYUANBEIRENTUOQI。ZAIBULUOZHIDUYIXIAOCHUDEJINTIANDEZANGZUSHEHUIZHONG,RENMENYIRANPUBIANDIRENWEI“GUXI”ZHIGUANZHONGYAO,ZHIYAOSHIYUZIJIJIAZUHEBULUOYOUXUEYUANGUANXI,BUGUANXIANGHUSHIFOURENSHI,DIYUXIANGGEDUOYUAN,YEJUEBUYUCITONGHUN,GENGBUHUIFASHENGBULUOJIUFEN。BINGQIEYIFANGBULUOYOUNAN,LINGYIFANGZEHUIBANGZHUJIEJUEQIKUNNAN。ZHEIZHONGYIXUEYUANWEINIUDAIDEBULUOYISHIRENGRANCANLIUZAIZANGMINZUDESHENGHUOYISHIZHONG。

       二、联姻联盟

       《GESAERWANGCHUAN》ZHONGDELIANYINYIBANWEILEZHUBULUODETONGYI。RU《MOLINGDAZHAN》ZHIBU,GESAERWEILEJIANGFUMOGUO,JIUCHUQIFEIZIMEISAQIANWANGMODI,YUMOGUOSHOUMENNVJIANG、MOWANGLUZANZHIMEIADALAMUJIEXIALIANGYUAN。ADALAMUWEILE“AIQING”,JIANGRUHEJINDEMOCHENGZHIMIGAOSUGESAER,ERRENLIYINGWAIHE,SHASILUZAN,JIANGFUMOGUO。GESAERHEADALAMUDEHUNYINSUIRANBEIYIRENSHENHUALE,DANSHIZHISHANGSHILIANGGUOLIANYINHOU,GESAERCONGQIZICHUDEZHIMOZHIGUOQING,CAIJIANGFULEMOGUO。

尚品棋牌       ZAITUFANLISHISHANG,LIANYINYECENGQIDAOGUOZHIGUANZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。YOUQIZAITUFANDISANSHISANDAIZANPUSONGZANGANBUSHIDAI。YEFANWEILEKUOCHONGJIANGYU、XUEXIXIANJINMINZUDEZHANGCHU、TUIDONGYESHANSHEHUIDEFAZHAN,SHIXINGLELIANYINDUICE。TUFANDIYIGELIANYINDEDUIXIANGSHIXIANGXIONG。ZAITUFANWANGCHAOJIANLIZHIQIAN,XIANGXIONGYIJINGSHIYIGEDAGUO,TUFANDIYIWEIZANPUNIECHIZANPUSHIDAI,CHUANSHUOXIANGXIONGWANGSHIYILIJINGLE18DAIGUOWANG,QIGUOYU“DONGYUHOUZANGMAPANGJIANCUOJIERANG,XIZHILADAKE,BINGSHENYANDAOBAJISITANJIHETIAN,SHENZHIBASHILIKUOZHANDAOLEQIANGTANGGAOYUAN”[3],ZAOZAIZANPUBUDEGONGQIASHIQI,YOUXIANGXIONGYUHONGYANGDEYONGZHONGBENJIAOYICONGXIANGXIONGCHUANDAOTUFAN。YOUCIKEJIAN,DANGSHIDEXIANGXIONGZAIGUOSHI、WENHUA、JIAOTONGGEFANGMIANDOUZOUZAITUFANDEQIANMIAN。YINCISONGZANGANBUJIANGQIMEISAIMAGAJIAJIXIANGXIONGWANGLIMIXIA,DEYIYUXIANGXIONGLIANYIN。JUDUNHUANGSHILIAOJIZAI“SAIMAGAWEIGUOJIADAZHENGJIAJILEXIANGXIONGWANGLIMIXIA”[4],KEJIANQIHUNYINBEIHOUDEZHENGZHIMUDE。DANGSHITUFANDUIXIANGXIONGDENGZHIBANGSHIXING“SHUANGRENZHENGCE”,“CIZANPUZHISHI,DUIRUXIANGXIONGZHIBANG,YIMIANLIANYINJIEHAO,YIMIANGONGDAZHENGZHAN[5]”,SAIMAGAJIARUXIANGXIONGHOU,YUQIXIONGSONGZANLIANSHOU,ZAIGONGYUAN644NIANMIELEXIANGXIONGGUO,SHIXIANGXIONGQUANBUCHENGWEITUFANDESHUMIN。

       LISHIHESHISHIFUYULESAIMAGAHEADALAMUDESHITONGYIXINGZHIDESHIMING,JIWEILEBULUO(HUOGUOJIA)DETONGYI。BUTONGDESHIADALAMUWEILE“SHENYONGWEIWU”DEGESAERCHUMAILEZIJIDEGUOJIA,HUIHUAILEWANGXIONGDEYEJI;ERSAIMAGAZEXISHENGZIJIDEHUNYINLAICHENGQUANSONGZANTONGYIQUANGUODEDAYE。LISHITONGGUOSAIMAGAZHANSHILESONGZANDEXIONGCAIDALVEHEZHENGZHIYEXIN;SHISHIZEBIAOXIANLE“SHENZI”GESAERDE“SHENBIANFALI”HE“GERENMEILI”。XIANGTONGDESHIZHEILIANGZHUANGHUNYINBEIHOUSHIANGZANGDEZHENGZHIMUDEHEJIANTANVXINGDELIEXINGZHIDU。

       LINGWAI,《GESAERWANGCHUAN》DE《QUBAOPIAN》ZHONG,GESAERSAIMADUOGUAN,DENGSHANGLINGGUODABAO,JIANGZUOWEISAIMACAIZHUZHIYIDEJIALUOBULUOSHOULINGDENVERJIALUOSENGJIANGZHUMUQUWEIFEIZI,ZHEISHIJIALUODUNBAJIANCANJIANGZIJIYIBANDECAICHANXIANJILEGESAERDAWANG。ZAIHUNYANSHANGTACHANGDAO:

尚品棋牌“TIANZHUHANDILIANGDIJIAN,JIALUOFUHAOQUECHUANSHUO,

WOERSENGJIANGZHUMUNV,WURENGENTABIMEISE,

尚品棋牌YUANJINLINBANGYUANDAXIAO,ZHENGXIANKONGHOULAITIQIN。

尚品棋牌HANZANGJIUSHIGUANHUANJIA,PAIRENLAIDENGWOJIAMEN,

尚品棋牌SHENZHIXINGBINGYONGWULI,YOUDUOCAICHANYOUQIANGREN。

尚品棋牌SUIHOUBAILINGSANZHIXI,SHOULINGBUJIANGLAOBAIXING,

DOUYAOZHENGZHEZUONVXU,HUXIANGJIEYUANCHENGCHOUREN。

JIALUOSUIFULIDANBO,YINERZHOUYEXINBUNING。

       YUSHIDANGZHONGLAIXUANBU,YAOWEINVERXUANNVXU,ZHENYANZHILUOSHEISHEN,JIUZUOZHUMUTAZHANGFU。”

       SUISHUOGESAERHEZHUMUSHIZIYOUXIANGLIAN,DANCONGJIALUOZHEIDUANHUALI,WOMENBUNANKANCHUFUJIATIANXIADEJIALUODUNBAJIANCANSHIPOYUWUNAICAIBANVERZUOWEISAIMACAIZHU。SAIMASHENGLIZHENENGDENGLINGGUODABAO,TONGSHIYONGYOUZHIGAOWUSHANGDEQUANLI。SHEICHENGWANG,SHEIJIUSHIJIALUODENVXU,YEJIUHENZIRANDIBAOHULEJIALUODECAICHANHEDIWEI。ZAIZHONGDUODECANSAIXUANSHOUZHONGGESAERTUOYINGERCHUCHENGLELINGGUODAWANG,SENGJIANGZHUMUMIDERUYILANGJUN,DUNBAJIANCANYEDADAOZIJIDEMUDE,YINCIJIALUOJIANGCAICHANDEYIBANZUOWEINVERDEJIAZHUANGXIANJILEGESAERDAWANG。ZHEIYIJUCUOSHILINGYUJIALUOBULUOGENGJIAKAOJIN,LINGTONGGUOLIANYINZENGJIALECAIFU,JIALUOYIGESAERDAWANGWEIKAOSHAN,GONGGULEZIJIDESHILI。SHIZHISHANGZHEIYESHIYIJIAJUYOUMINGXIANZHENGZHIMUDELIANYINLIANMENG。“SUIZHELINGSHIZUBULUODEBUDUANFANYANZHUANGDA,ZHEIGEYIXUEYUANGUANXIWEINIUDAIDEDOULUOZUZHIYIJIANJIANQUXIANGGONGTONGHUA,XIANGDIYUANGUANXIWEINIUDAIDERENMENGONGTONGTIJIANJIN”[7],ZHEIYILIANYINJUCUOSHILINGBULUOCONGDANCHUNDEXUEYUANZUZHIZHUANHUADAODIYUANGUANXIDELIANMENGZUZHI。

       YILIANYINZENGQIANGGUOSHIDEDIANXINGSHITANGFANLIANYIN。DANGSHI“SONGZANGANBUTONGYITUFANGUOBUJIU,JIUBUHEBEIZHENGFUDEQITABUZUZHISHIWEIWEIERFU,ZHENGXUYAOJIEZHUDATANGDESHENGSHIZHENSHE,ZHEISHITUFANYUTANGLIANMENGDEMUDEZHIYI”[8]。GONGYUAN664NIAN,WENCHENGGONGZHURUFAN“HEQIN”,DAILAILEDATANGXIANJINDEKEJIWENHUA,WEITUFANSHEHUIDEJINBUHEFAZHAN、TANGSHANBIANCHUIANNING、LIANGGUODEJINGJI、WENHUAJIAOLIUDENGFANGMIAN,ZUOCHULEBUKEMOMIEDEGONGXIAN。

       LIANYINLIANMENGBUJINZAIZANGZULISHISHANGQIDAOGUOZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,ZAIDANGJINSHEHUILITAYIRANYOUTESHUDEYIYI。BIRUSICHUANSHENGABAZANGZUQIANGZUZIZHIZHOURUOERGAIXIANYOUSHIERGEBULUO,QISHIERBULUODETOURENZHIJIANDOUYOULIANYINGUANXI,ZHEIZHUYAOWEILEFANGZHIBULUOJIANFASHENGTOUDAO、QIANGJIE、CAOSHANJIUFENDENGWENTI,BINGQIDAOLEYIDINGZUOYONG。

       三、战争联盟

       ZHEISHIYIGEQIANGZHIXINGDELIANMENGXIANXIANG。《GESAERWANGCHUAN》ZHONG,LING、HUO、DUI、MEN、JIANG、BOLV、ACHAI、DASHIDENGBULUODOUSHIXIEDULIDE“GUOJIA”。DANSUIZHELINGBULUODEQIANGDA,ZHUBULUOYIYIZHANBAI,CHENGWEILINGGUODE“SHUGUO”,DOUYAOXIANGLINGNAGONG、CHENGCHEN,BICISHIXINGZHEYIZHONGCHENSHUDELIANMENGGUANXI。SHISHIZHONG,GESAERCHENGWANGHOUBIANKAISHILETADERONGMASHENGYA,DIYIGECHUZHENGDEBIANSHIMOGUO,YINWEIMOWANGLUZANQIANGZOULETADEAIFEI。TAGENJUTIANSHENDESHOUJI,DANQIANGPIMACHUZHENGMOGUOSHASIMOWANGPUZAN,JIANGMOGUOHUIYULINGQIXIA。BULIAOZHEISHITADELINGYIWEIFEIZIZENGJIANGZHUMUBEIHUOGUOBAIZHANGWANGLVEQU,LIANGGUOYINCIJIAOZHAN。GESAERTONGFUYIMUDEGEGEJIACHAXIEGAERBEIHUOGUODAJIANGXINBAMEIRUZISUOSHA。GESAERWENZHICISHIHOU,BIANCONGMOGUOQICHENG,QIANWANGHUOGUO,KAISHILETADEDIERCIZHENGZHAN。GESAERDABAIHUOGUO,FUJIANGBAIZHANGWANG。DANTAMEIYOUCHUZHIZUOWEIZHANFANDEXINBAMEIRUZI,FANERFENGTAWEIHUOGUOGUOWANG。ZHEISUIRANZAODAOLELINGGUOWANGCHU、JIACHAXIEGAERZHIZIZHALAZEJIEDEQIANGLIEFANDUI,DANZAIJIANGLINGJIAOZHANSHI,XINBAMEIRUZIDAILINGHUOGUOJIANGSHI,SHOUDANGQICHONG,LIXIAHANMAGONGLAO,BINGDUILINGGESAERFUSHOUCHENGCHEN,MEINIANCHAOGONG。JIEZHEGESAERZHENGZHANSIFANG,ZHENGTAOSHIBADAZONG,JIANGTAMENYIYIHUIYULINGDEQIXIA。TAMENYAODUILINGSHANGGONG,BINGQIEYUDIJIAOZHANSHI,SUOYOUDESHUGUOJIECHENGLIANDUI,GONGTONGFADI,XINGCHENGLEYILINGGUOWEIZHUTIDEJUNSHIBULUOLIANMENGZHIDU。ZHANZHENGLIANMENGZHONGZHIDEYITIDESHIMENGSHIXIANXIANG。ZHEISHIYIZHONG“YIWULIZHENGFUTABULUOHOUSHIXINGZHANGQITONGZHIDEYIXIANGYOULICUOSHI”[9]。RUSHISHI《QUXUESHANSHUIJINGGUO》ZHIBU,LADAKEBULUOJINGONGBORAO、DAMABULUO,QIANGPOTAMENXIANGLADAKECHENGCHENNAGONG,DANDAMABULUODEYIGEMINGJIAODABENGDEJIANGLINGSHUO:

“BOTONGHEDAMAZHONGXIAOGUO,

MENGXIONGSHIWANGPUSHIHONGEN,

WODAMAYUNYUNZHIZHONGBAIXING,

YIXINXIANGGESAERWANGGUIJIE,

WEIHEDAMAJINGONGNASHUI,

DINGLITIAOYUEYOUHAIJINGSHANMENG,

尚品棋牌YAOGAIZHEITIAOGUIJUBUKENENG”。[10]

尚品棋牌       ZHEISHUOMINGLINGYUDAMADENGBUTONGGUOMENGSHISHIXINGZHEYIZHONGFUSHUGUANXI。BUJIU,LINGGONGZHANLADAKE,DAHUOQUANSHENG,GESAERWANGMINGLINGLADAKETONGGUOMENGJINGYULINGWEICHIXIQINGUANXI。HOULAILINGMEIZHANSHENGYIGEBULUO,DOUYAOYUQIMENGSHI,SHIQICHENGWEILINGDEMENGYOU。ZAITUFANDELISHISHANG,SHIXINGJUNSHILIANMENGDEXIANXIANGYEBIBIJIESHI。JUWENXIANJIZAI,TUFANZANPUDABUNIEXISHIDAI,YALONGZHOUWEIGONGYOUSANGEDADEBULUO,CHUYUGEJUZHUANGTAI。JI“DABUNIEXIWANGZHUQIONGWADAZIBAO、SENBUJIEDAJIAWOJUNIANGAERJIUBAO、SENBUJIECHIBANGSONGMUJUDOUERWAZHIYOUNEI,”HOULAIBEIDABUNIEXISUOBING。DAOSONGZANGANBUSHIQI,TUFANJIANGZHOUWEIZHUBANGTONGYIQILAI,ZUJIANLEYIZHIQIANGDADEJUNDUI,KAISHILETONGYIQINGZANGGAOYUANDEZHANLVEBUSHU。TAMENXIANHOUTUNBINGLEXIANGXIONG、TUGUHUN、TUJUE、NANZHAODENGZHUGUO,XINGCHENGLEYITUFANWEIZHONGXINDEQINGZANGGAOYUANZHUBULUOHEBANGGUOJIANYIZHANZHENGWEIQIANTIDEJUNSHIBULUODELIANMENGXIANXIANG。LINGWAI,DANGSHIZANPUHEDACHENZHIJIANJINXINGMENGSHIDELISHIJIZAIZAIDUNHUANGWENXIANHEQITASHISHUZHONGYESUICHUKEYIJIANDAO。

       结语

       BULUOLIANMENGSHIMINZUXINGCHENGGUOCHENGZHONGBIXUJINGLIDEYIGELISHIJIEDUAN。MEIYIGEMINZUKAISHICONGDANCHUNDEXUEYUANZUZHIZHUJIANBIANCHENGDIYUANHUOJUNSHILIANMENGWEIJICHUDEBULUOJITUANGONGTONGTI,CONGERXINGCHENGYIGEMINZUHUOGUOJIA。SHISHIZHONG,LINGYUZHOUWEIBULUODEZHANZHENG,YUXINAN、XIBEIQITAMINZUJIANDEZHANZHENG,YIJIBILINGUOJIADEGUDAIMINZUJIANDEZHANZHENG,GUIGENJIEDISHIWEILEZHUBULUODETONGYI。《GESAERWANGCHUAN》TONGZANGZULISHIDEFAZHANXIANGYIZHI,SHUNYINGLEGUDAIQINGZANGGAOYUAN,YOUFENSANZOUXIANGTONGYIDELISHISHISHI。XINGXIANGDIJISHULEZANGMINZUCONGSHIZU、BUZU、BULUO、DAOBULUOLIANMENGDEQUANBUGUOCHENG,SHIYIBUHUODEZANGZUBULUOFAZHANSHI。(ZUOZHERENQIANZHUOMA,NV,ZANGZU,QINGHAIREN,XIZANGDAXUEWENXUEYUANJIAOSHI,ZHUYAOYANJIUFANGXIANGWEIGESAERXUE)

CANKAOWENXIAN:

尚品棋牌[1](MEI)LUYISI·HENGLI·MOERGEN:GUDAISHEHUI[M].SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN.1982.4.P121.

尚品棋牌[2]XINGHAINING:GUOLUOZANGZUSHEHUI[M].ZHONGGUOZANGXUECHUBANSHE.1988.6.

[3][8]XIZANGYANJIU[E].1988(3).P18.

尚品棋牌[4]HUANGBUFAN、MADE:DUNHUANGZANGWENTUFANSHIWENXIANYIZHU[M].GANSUJIAOYUCHUBANSHE.2000.6.P230、

[5]HUANGBUFAN、MADE:DUNHUANGZANGWENTUFANSHIWENXIANYIZHU[M].GANSUJIAOYUCHUBANSHE.2000.6.P117.

[6]GESAERWENKU[J].DIYIJUAN.GANSUMINZUCHUBANSHE.1996.6.P315.

[7]ZHAOBINGLI:GESAERJICHENG[J].DIWUJUAN.GANSUMINZUCHUBANSHE.1992.9.P3237.

[8]XIZANGYANJIU[E].1988(3).P18、P20.

尚品棋牌[9]HEFENG:GESAERYUZANGZUBULUO[M].QINGHAIMINZUCHUBANSHE.1995.12.P38.

[10]QUXUESHANSHUIJINGGUO[J].SICHUANMINZUCHUBANSHE.1994.4.P30.ZANGZUMINSUWANG