摘要:隋唐和吐蕃时期是青海丝绸之路及唐蕃古道形成和发展的重要阶段。青海地区由于处于汉藏之间,具有独特的地理位置,唐朝佛教经由唐蕃古道输入吐蕃统治的核心地区,与印度输入的佛教产生碰撞和融合,形成吐蕃特色的佛教艺术。在吐蕃的大力弘扬下,吐蕃佛教向周边包括青海地区输出。以玉树和昌都为中心的吐蕃佛教摩崖造像年代主要集中于9世纪初,在艺术风格和题材内容上都具有明显的共性,说明在吐蕃时期,尤其是在赤松德赞和赤德松赞统治时期,青海玉树地区已经形成了一个吐蕃佛教的弘传中心,并创造了一套统一的佛教摩崖造像系统。在吐蕃征服青海地区后的近二百年间,吐蕃在这一地区留下了大量墓葬,墓葬的出土物中或多或少会存在一些佛教因素,可以透过它们窥见佛教在该地区的传播情况和存在状态:一些器物的造型和功能深受佛教的影响,如镀金舍利容器和吐蕃“王冠”;佛教中所流行的象征性图像广泛存在于一些生活器具上,包括迦陵频伽形象以及狮、象与莲花造型等。这些佛教因素更多地来自汉地,尤其是河西敦煌地区,与摩崖石刻中透露出的吐蕃风格形成鲜明的对照,凸显了青海地区在唐蕃时期佛教文化面貌的多元性特征。

尚品棋牌       ZAOZAI5—6SHIJI,TONGZHIQINGHAIDIQUDETUGUHUNRENJIUKAISHIJIESHOUFOJIAO,QINGHAIDAO(JITUGUHUNDAO)ZAIZHEIYISHIQICHENGWEILIANJIEDONGXIFANGDEZHONGYAOTONGDAOHEJIAOTONGSHUNIU。GAOSENGTANWUJIE、HUILAN、FAXIAN、SONGYUN、DUNEIJUEDUODENGDOULUJINGCIDAOXIXINGQIUFAHUOYUNYOUDONGTU,JIAZHIZHOUBIANDELIANGZHOUHELONGXIDIQUFOJIAOXIANGDANGXINGSHENG,YINGZAOLENONGHOUDECHONGFOFENWEI,ZHEIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGCUJINLEFOJIAOZAITUGUHUNTONGZHIQUDECHUANBO。DAOSHIYINTONGZHISHIQI(452—481),TUGUHUNYIJING“GUOZHONGYOUFOFA”LE。6SHIJICHU,TUGUHUNWANGHAIZHAOXUZAIYIZHOUXINGJIANFOSI,BINGXIANGNANCHAOLIANGQIANSHIQIUFOXIANGJIJINGLUN。DANGRAN,TUGUHUNTONGZHIZHESUIYOUCHONGFOZITAI,ERMINJIANDEFOJIAOXINYANGSIHUBINGMEIYOUTAIDUOPUJI,TUGUHUNRENZHANZHUDAODIWEIDEZONGJIAOXINYANGRENGRANSHI“JINGGUISHEN,CITIANDIRIYUEXINGCHENSHANCHUAN”DENGYUANSHIWUSHU。 SUIHECHUTANGSHIQIQINGHAIZHOUBIANDIQUDEFOJIAOHUODONGGENGJIAFANRONG,HEXIZOULANGHELONGYOUDIQUZUOWEIFOJIAOSHURUZHONGYUANDEBIJINGZHILU,ZHONGYUANWANGCHAOZAIZHEIYIDIQUDAGUIMOKAIKUZAOXIANG,CONGDUNHUANG、LIANGZHOUTIANTISHANDAOTIANSHUIMAIJISHANDOULIUXIALEFENGFUDEFOJIAOYIJI。ZAITANGFANBIANJINGDEGUDAOGUANAICHU,TANGWANGCHAOYEZAOSHANGOUSHI,XIUJIANSIYUAN。LINJINFENGLINGUANDEGANSUYONGJINGBINGLINGSI,CHENGWEITANGFANSHIZHEWANGLAITUZHONGBIJINGDELIFOSHENGDI。JUSHIJIJIZAI,TANGQIANQIQINGHAIHEHUANGDIQUDEFOJIAOSIYUANZHISHAOYEYOUWUZUOZHIDUO。XINFAXIANDEQINGHAIHUALONGDANDOUSIDETANGDAITIJIYEZHENGSHI,ZHICHIZAI673NIAN,TANGCHAOYIZAIZHEIYIDIQUXIUJIANLESIYUAN。7—8SHIJITANGFANZHIJIANPINFANDESHITUANHUFANG、BIANJINGHUSHIHEJUNSHICHONGTU,KEGUANSHANGWEITANGFANZHIJIANDEFOJIAOJIAOLIUCHUANGZAOLETIAOJIAN。

       LINGYIFANGMIAN,TUFANYEDUIFOJIAOZAIXINZHENGFUQUDECHUANBOQIDAOJIJIDEZHUTUIZUOYONG。TUFANZAI663NIANZHENGFUTUGUHUNDIQU,SUIJIANGZHENGGEQINGHAIDIQUZHIYUQITONGZHIZHIXIA,JINERCHENGANSHIZHILUANZHIJI,JINQUHEXIHELONGYOUZHIDI。ZHEIYISHIQIZHENGSHIDUXINFOJIAODECHISONGDEZAN(755—797NIANZAIWEI)JICHIZUDEZAN(815—838NIANZAIWEI)SHIQI,CONGTANGCHAOHEYINDUTONGSHISHURUDEFOJIAO,JIJINGBOZHEHOUZAITUFANSHEHUIDEYIQUELI。ZAITONGZHIZHEDEDALIZHICHIXIA,TUFANZAIHEXIDIQUKAIKUZAOXIANG,JIANSIDUSENG,DALIFUZHISIYUANJINGJI,FOJIAOJIBENSHANGYANXULECHUTANGSHIQIDEFANRONG。ZAIQINGHAIDIQU,FOJIAODEHONGYANGDEDAOLETUFANZHIXIADETUGUHUNWANGDEJIJIZHICHI,779NIANTUFANSANGYESIXINGFOZHENGMENGZHAOSHUZHONG,TUGUHUNWANGZHIMINGJUYUZHONGLISHIRENZHISHOU。CHIDESONGZAN(798—815NIANZAIWEI)SHIDE《GAQIONGDUOJIYINGSIXINGFOZHAOSHU》,XIAOBANGFASHIZHEZHISHOUYEWEITUGUHUNKEHAN,YINCITUGUHUNDIQUBUDANSHITUFANFOJIAOHONGCHUANDEZHONGDI,HENKENENGYESHIQIXIANGHEXIDIQUTUIJINDEQIANZHAN,SHIBICHENGWEITANGCHAOHETUFANFOFADEHUIJUZHIDI。DUNHUANGWENSHUZHONGJIZAIZAI9SHIJIZAOQIHEYUANDIQU(GUIDE)YIJINGXINGCHENGYIGEFOJIAOZHONGXIN——CHIGASI,RONGHELEHANDIDESHANZONGHETUFANDEMIZONG。TUFANHAIZAIZHEIYIDIQUHAIJUXINGYINSHAFOHUI,“TUOBAOXIANG(XIANG)YUHEYUAN,YINJINRONGYUSHAJIE”,KEJIANDANGSHIZHEIYIDIQUFOJIAOFAZHANDESHENGKUANG。

       CONGZUIJINZHEIXIENIANDEKAOGUFAXIANLAIKAN,TANGCHAOHETUFANSHIQIZAIQINGHAIDIQULIUXIALEYIXIEFOJIAOTICAIDEYICUNYIJIYUFOJIAOMIQIEXIANGGUANDEYIJIHEYIWU,QIZHONGZHUYAOBAOKUOFOJIAOMOYASHIKEHESHOUFOJIAOYINGXIANGDEYIXIEMUZANGSUIZANGPIN。

       一、佛教摩崖石刻 

       MOYASHIKESHIYANJIUTUFANFOJIAOFAZHANZHUANGKUANGYIJITANGFANGUDAOJIAOTONGLUXIANDEZHONGYAOZILIAO。QIJINWEIZHISUOFAXIANDETUFANSHIQIFOJIAOMOYASHIKEGONGJI20CHU,QIZHONGXIZANG8CHU,ZHUYAOFENBUYUCHANGDOUDIQU;QINGHAIGONG7CHU,ZHUYAOFENBUYUYUSHUDIQU;SICHUANGONG5CHU,FENBUYUYUSHULINJINDIQUDESHIQUXIAN。DAZHIJIZHONGFENBUZAIQINGZANGGAOYUANDONGLU,YIQINGHAIYUSHUHEXIZANGCHANGDOUDIQUWEIZHONGXIN,BINGFUSHEDAOLINJINDIQU。ZUIJINJINIANXIANGGUANDEXINFAXIANBUDUANZENGDUO,DIAOCHAGONGZUOGENGJIAQUANMIANHEXIHUA,JILEILEFENGFUDECAILIAO,TONGSHIYEDUIYIWANGDEFAXIANCHANSHENGLEXINDERENSHI。 

       QINGHAIDIQUFAXIANDETUFANMOYASHIKEZHUYAOJIZHONGYUYUSHUDIQU,ZHUYAOFENBUZAIBEINAGOU、LEBAGOUKOUHELEBAGOUNEI。

       (YI)BEINAGOUMOYAZAOXIANG 

尚品棋牌       WEIYUQINGHAIYUSHUJIEGUZHENNANYUE20GONGLICHU,DIAOKEYUGOUNEIYIKUAIQIAOBISHANG,ZHUZUNWEIDARIRULAIZUOXIANG,ZUOYOUFENLIEBADAPUSALIXIANG,ZAOXIANGFUJINYOUZANGWENTIJI,JUFENXISHIDAIDANGWEI806NIAN。

尚品棋牌       (ER)LEBAGOUKOUMOYAZAOXIANG 

1.jpg       位于贝纳沟造像东北约8公里处的沟口位置,共有两处造像,分别为阴线刻的礼佛图和说法图。礼佛图主尊为释迦牟尼立像,左侧刻有四位朝拜者,依次为跪拜侍童,吐蕃装男性,汉装妇女以及汉装年轻女性形象,可能刻画的是一个吐蕃贵族家庭(图1)。

2.jpg       说法图题材为释迦牟尼佛坐像,左右各一尊坐佛像,后侧有一列四尊交脚听法僧众像,右下方为两尊龙女(或龙王)神像和两身听法人众形象,最下侧罗列虎、豹、犀牛、象、孔雀、鹿、马等各类动物的诸有情(图2)。释迦牟尼的狮子座具有典型的吐蕃时代特征,靠枕与背屏的样式与印度波罗王朝时期造型极为相似,年代应该是8世纪下半叶到9世纪。

尚品棋牌       (SAN)LEBAGOUNEIQIAGANGMOYAZAOXIANG 

3.jpg       位于距沟口不远处,分布于相邻的三块岩石上,题材为大日如来、观世音与金刚手菩萨,皆为减地浅浮雕。在大日如来左上部有两通供养天女形象,为阴线刻(图3)。根据藏文题记推测年代为赤德松赞时期的841年,或为赤祖德赞在位期间的826—838年。 

尚品棋牌       (SI)LEBAGOUNEIWUNASANGGAMOYAZAOXIANG 

       WEIYULEBAGOUNEILEQUHENANAN,JUBEIDUANGOUKOUYUE1.5GONGLI,WEIYUQIANLIANGCHUSHIKEDIANZHIJIAN,GONGYOU5ZUTUXIANG,ZHUYAOWEIFOCHUANGUSHI。 

       AZUSHIKESHANGFANGYANMIANYINXIANKEYIFOERPUSA,XIAFANGKEERPUSAHEYIZHIMIHOU,YOUXIAJIAOYOUYIDUANGUZANGWENTIJI,NEIRONGWEIMIAOSHU“MIHOUFENGMI”GUSHI。DIERDUANWEIMIAOSHUSHIJIAMOUNIFODANSHENGGUSHI,JIBZUSHIKE,WEIYUAZUYOUCE,KEHUAFOMUMOYEFURENZHANYUSHUXIA,YOUXIEXIAFANGZHANLIYIZUNXIAOFOXIANG,QIANFANGXIANYIPAILIANHUA,ZUOCEGUIZUOSANMIANSIBEIDEFANTIAN,YOUCEWEIZHANLIDEDISHITIAN。MOYEFURENSHENHOUKERENSHOULONGSHENDELONGWANGXINGXIANG,FOMUTOUDINGLIANGCEKEYOUSANSHENFEITIANXIANG。HUAMIANYOUCEXIAFANGYOUZANGWENTIJI,BIAOMINGNEIRONGWEI《WULIANGSHOUJING》HEJINGZHOUJICHISONGGAIJINGZHOUDEGONGDE(TU4)。

4.jpg       B组右侧为C组画面,上部刻坐佛及胁侍菩萨和弟子各一以及一尊跪坐供养状神像。左侧刻有一座汉式建筑,其内端坐三位吐蕃装人物形象。图像下方为藏文题记,内容为《圣薄伽梵母般若波罗蜜多心经》。根据报告者分析,该经文与玄奘译本差异较大,而与吐蕃高僧法成的译本较为接近。 

       DZUWEIYUCZUYOUCE,ZHONGJIANKEYOUSANZUNLIXIANG,ZHONGJIANWEISHIJIAMOUNIFO,LIANGCEGELIYIPUSA,ZUOCEWEISANMIANSIBEIDEFANTIAN,YOUCEWEISHOUJUHUAGAIDEDISHITIAN。FANTIANZUOCEYOUSANWEITUFANZHUANGGONGYANGREN,DISHITIANSHENHOUYEYOUYISHENGONGYANGREN。TUXIANGXIAFANGWEICHENGZUOLIUYADAXIANGDEPUXIANPUSA,ZUOCEWEIQISHIDEWENSHUPUSA。GAITUXIANGBIAOXIANDESHISHIJIAMOUNIFOJIANGZISANSHISANTIANDECHANGJING。 

       EZUWEIYUDZUYOUCE,SHIGAISHIKEDIANDEZUIBEIDUAN,MIANJIZUIDA,WEIZHIZUIGAO。ZUISHANGFANGKEHANSHIXIESHANDINGWUYAN,QIXIADUANZUOYIFOHEERXIESHIPUSA,YINGWEIDARIRULAIHEJINGANGSHOU、GUANSHIYINPUSA。QIXIACEKEFONIEPANCHANGJING。FOCEWOYUGUANCHUANGSHANG,QISHANGFANGWEILONGWANGHEZHONGFODIZI,LONGWANGHEFOTOUHOUCEGEYOUYIZHUPOLUOSHU。GUANCHUANGXIAFANGKEYOUSANSISHENGUIZUORENWU,WEISHOUDESHIYITUFANZHUANGRENWU,YINGWEIQIANLAIZHIAIDETUFANWANGZUJIAJUAN。ZHENGGETUXIANGXIABANBUFENKEHUAYIFOERPUSA,JUNWEIZUOZI,LIANGPUSASHENHOUGELIYIDIZI。QIXIACEKEYIFENBIANCHUSANZUNPUSAZUOXIANG。XIAFANGWEIZANGWENTIJI,KEBIAN“WAIDAO”“ZHONGWAIDAOMOBIANJINSHI”“TINGFA”DENGZIYANG。 

尚品棋牌       WUNASANGGASHIKEDIDIANSHIJINNIANLAIYUSHUDIQUTUFANFOJIAOMOYASHIKEDEZUIXINFAXIAN,BAOGAOZHEYIJUTUXIANGFENGGEHEZANGWENTIJI,JIANGGAISHIKEDIDIANDENIANDAIDUANWEI8SHIJIXIABANYEDAO9SHIJISHANGBANYE,YUZHOUBIANDEMOYASHIKENIANDAIJIEJIN。 

       CIWAI,ZAIHAIXIZHOUDOULANXIANRESHUIXIANGCHAHANWUSUHENANAN、LUSIGOUNANCEDEYAMIANSHANGYOUYIZUMOYASHIKE,XUXINGUORENWEISHI5ZHI6SHIJIDESANFOTICAI,ZUIJINYOUXUEZHERENWEIRENGSHUYUTUFANSHIQIDARIRULAIYUERPUSAZAOXIANG。 

       YUSHUDIQUSHIZHENGGEQINGHAIDIQUTUFANFOJIAOMOYASHIKEZUIWEIJIZHONGDEDIQU,ZHEIXIANRANYUQIWEIYUTANGFANGUDAODEZHONGYAOJIAOTONGJIEDIANJUYOUMIQIEDEGUANLIAN。QIZHONGBEINAGOUMOYAZAOXIANGSUOZAIWEIZHIHOUQIJIANYOUWENCHENGGONGZHUMIAO,XIANGCHUANDANGNIANWEIWENCHENGGONGZHURUZANGJINGGUOCIDISUOKETUXIANG,SUIRANSHIKESHIDAISHANGYOUMINGXIANDEBUFU,DANQIDILIWEIZHIDEZHONGYAOXINGSHIXIANERYIJIANDE。YUSHUZHOUBIANQUYUDETUFANFOJIAOMOYASHIKEFENBUSHULIANGJIAODUO,QIZHONGBIJIAOZHONGYAODEFAXIANBAOKUOSICHUANSHIQUXIANZHAOALAMUMOYASHIKEZAOXIANG(755—794,HUO804),XUBASHENSHANSHIKEQUN(755—794),XIZANGCHANGDOUMANGKANGXIANRENDADANMAZHA、ZHAKUOXI、ZIXUHELANGBALANGZEMOYAZAOXIANGYIJICHAYAXIANDANMAZHAMOYAZAOXIANG(804)DENG。ZHEIXIETUFANFOJIAOMOYASHIKEWULUNSHINEIRONGTICAIHAISHIYISHUBIAOXIANXINGSHI,DOUJUYOUFEICHANGMINGXIANDEGONGTONGTEZHENG,XUEZHEMENWUYILIWAIJIANGTAMENDANGZUOYIGEZHENGTILAIJINXINGTAOLUN。 

尚品棋牌       CONGKONGJIANFENBUSHANGLAIKAN,ZHEIXIEFOJIAOMOYASHIKEZAOXIANGDOUWEIYUWEIZANGDIQUTONGWANGHANDIDEJIAOTONGYAODAOSHANG,SHIDAIJIZHONGZAI8SHIJIXIABANDAO9SHIJISHANGBAN。CONGTICAINEIRONGSHANGLAIKAN,ZHUYAOLIUXINGDARIRULAI、JINGANGSHOUHEGUANSHIYINSANZUNXIANGYIJIXIANGDUIFUZADEDARIRULAIYUBADAPUSAZUHE。ZAIZAOXIANGFENGGESHANG,ZHEIPIMOYASHIKEZAOXIANGYIFANGMIANXISHOULELAIZINIBOERHEYINDUBOLUOFENGGEDEYINGXIANG,ZHEIZHUYAOSHIYINDUGAOSENGRUZANGHONGFASUOZHI,TONGSHIZAIFO、PUSAHEGONGYANGRENXIANGDETUFANSHIZHUANGSHUSHANGXIANSHILEFOJIAOBENTUHUA、SHISUHUADETEZHENG,ZAIBIAOXIANSHOUFASHANGYECHUANGZAOLEYINXIANKEDEDUTEXINGSHI。CONGZANGWENSHIKETIJIZHONGKEYIKANCHU,DUISHIKEDIAOZAOQIDAOZHONGYAOZUOYONGDESHIZHONGDUOTUFANGAOSENGYIJIHANZUHUOZANGHANJIAOJIEDIDAIDESHAOSHUMINZUJIANGREN,TAMENDEZONGJIAOREQING、SHULIANDEDIAOZAOJISHUHECHUANGZAOLI,SHIDEZHEIXIEDUTEFENGGEDEYIXINGCHENGGUDINGDEMOSHI,BINGZAIGUANGKUODEFANWEINEIXUNSUCHUANBO。QIZHONGYIGEDAIBIAOXINGRENWUSHITUFANGAOSENGYIXIYANG,CHANGDOUCHAYAXIANDANMAZHAMOYAZAOXIANGTIJITIDAOZHEIWEITUFANGAOSENGBUDANZHUCHILEGAICHUZAOXIANGHETIJIDEDIAOKE,TONGSHIHAIZAI“YU、LONG、BANG、LE、BAOWUDENGDI”(YINGGAISHIYUSHUZHOUBIANQUYU)GUANGWEILESHI。TADEMINGHAOHAICHUXIANZAIYUSHUBEINAGOUMOYAZAOXIANGHEGANSUMINHEBIANDOUKOUMOYAZAOXIANGSHANGYIJIDUNHUANGDEGUZANGWENXIEJUANZHONG。YIXIYANGDAYUEZAI862NIANYUANJIYUGUIDEDECHIGASI。GAISIYUANZIGONGYUAN800NIANQI,HANDIHEZANGDIDESHANZONGDASHIDOUJUYUCI,SHIQINGHAIDIQUTUFANFOJIAODELINGYIGEZHONGXIN,HOULAICHENGWEITUFANSENGLVTAOBIDAMOMIEFAPOHAIDEHUIJUDIAN。 

尚品棋牌       TUFANSHIQIMOYASHIKEDUOYIYINXIANKEWEIZHU,FUYISHAOLIANGDEQIANFUDIAO,ZHEISHISHIYINGDIDUOJIANSHIDEQINGZANGGAOYUANDONGBUDIQUDEYIGEDUCHUANG。NISU、BIHUAHEYUANDIAOZAIZHEIYIQUYUBINGMEIYOUSHIHEDEZIRANHUANJINGTIAOJIAN,QIECHENGBENYEJIWEIGAOANG,ERQIANBAINIANBENDIDEYANHUADIAOZAOCHUANTONG,ZEWEITUFANMOYASHIKETIGONGLEFENGHOUDETURANG。HANZUHEHANZANGJIAOJIEDIDAIDESHAOSHUMINZUGONGJIANGMINGZIPINFANCHUXIANZAIMOYASHIKETIJIZHIZHONG,RUSHIQUXUBASHENSHAN、CHANGDOUCHAYAXIANDANMAZHA、YUSHUBEINAGOUDEMOYAZAOXIANGDENG。QIZHONGCHANGDOUCHAYAXIANDANMAZHAMOYASHIKEZHONGHAIYOU“YIN”XINGTONGLIAOSENGREN(XIEZHUSHEJISHIGONGDEJISHURENYUAN)HE“HUN”XINGJIANGREN,ANSHITAMENKENENGFENBIESHIDUNHUANGDEDAXINGHEQINGHAIDETUGUHUNRENHOUYI。SHIQUZHAOALAMUMOYASHIKEZAOXIANGTIJIZHONGTIDAO“MIYAOWANG”ZAICHISONGDEZANZHISHI“DERUJIETUOZHIDAO……GUANGJIANSIYUAN”,SHUOMINGHAN、ZANGHEDANGDISHAOSHUMINZUGONGTONGCANYUHEWANCHENGLEZHEIXIESIYUANDEXIUJIANHEMOYASHIKEDEDIAOZAO。ZHEISHIWAILAIFOJIAOZAITICAINEIRONGHEBIAOXIANSHOUFASHANGSHIXIANBENTUHUAYUHANZANGRONGHEDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN。 

尚品棋牌       YIYUSHUHECHANGDOUWEIZHONGXINDETUFANFOJIAOMOYAZAOXIANGZAIYISHUFENGGEHETICAINEIRONGSHANGDOUJUYOUQIANGLIEDEGONGXING,ZHEISHUOMINGZAITUFANSHIQI,YOUQISHIZAICHISONGDEZANHECHIDESONGZANTONGZHISHIQI,QINGHAIYUSHUDIQUYIJINGXINGCHENGLEYIGETUFANFOJIAODEHONGCHUANZHONGXIN,BINGCHUANGZAOLEYITAOTONGYIDEFOJIAOMOYAZAOXIANGXITONG。SUIRANZHEIYITAOMOYAZAOXIANGXITONGBUKEBIMIANDIHUISHOUDAOLAIZITUFANZHANLINGSHIQIHEXIDEFOJIAOSHENGDI——DUNHUANGDEYINGXIANG,DANZAIDUNHUANGCHUXIANDEJUYOUDIANXINGTUFANBOLUOYANGSHIDEZUOPIN,BAOKUOBIHUAHEJUANHUA,NIANDAIDOUZAI9SHIJISHANGBANYE,JIZHONGZAI830NIANQIANHOU,LVEWANYUYUSHUHECHANGDOUDEMOYASHIKENIANDAI——9SHIJICHU。ZHEIANSHILEZHEIYIFENGGECONGQINGHAIZHIHEXI、YOUNANERBEIDECHUANBOHEFAZHANGUOCHENG。KEYITUICE,CONGWEIZANGDIQUSHURUDEYINDUFOJIAO,YANZHETANGFANZHIJIANDEJIAOTONGKONGDAO,ZAIQINGHAIDIQUJINXINGGAIZAOHEDINGXING,JINERDUIHANDIDEDUNHUANGHESICHUANDIQUSHIJIAYINGXIANG。 

       二、墓葬随葬品中的佛教因素 

尚品棋牌       QINGHAIDIQUFOJIAOMOYASHIKEZAOXIANGDENIANDAIZHUYAOJIZHONGYU9SHIJICHU,KEYIQUEDINGWEI8SHIJINAIZHIGENGZAODEFOJIAOYICUNFEICHANGSHAOJIAN。SUIRANZAICHISONGDEZANSHIQIYIJINGKAISHIZAIZHEIYIQUYUDALIHONGFA,779NIANSANGYESIDEXINGFOZHENGMENGSHIWENZHONG,TUGUHUNWANGJUYUZHONGLISHIRENZHISHOU,SHIBIHUIJIDATUIDONGTUFANZHANLINGDETUGUHUNDIQUDEFOJIAOFAZHAN。ZAI663NIANTUFANZHENGFUZHEIYIDIQUZHIHOUDEJINERBAINIANJIAN,TUFANZAIQINGHAIDIQULIUXIALEDALIANGMUZANG,QINIANDAIYOUQIJIZHONGYU8SHIJI。ZHEIXIEMUZANGDECHUTUWUZHONGHUODUOHUOSHAOHUICUNZAIYIXIEFOJIAOYINSU,KEYITOUGUOTAMENKUIJIANFOJIAOZAIGAIDIQUDECHUANBOQINGKUANGHECUNZAIZHUANGTAI。

尚品棋牌       (YI)DUJINSHELIRONGQI 

       ZAIRESHUIYIHAODAMUQIANFANGDEXUNMAKENGNEI,CHUTUYIJIANZHOUSHENXIANGYOUDUJINYINPIANDEMUZHIQIWU,JINGFUYUANHOUCHENGTOUKUANWEIZHAIDEFANGGUANXING,ZHOUSHENSHIRENDONGJUANCAOWEN,CEMIANSHIXIANCAOLIFENG,DINGBUSHIYILIELIFENG,FAJUEZHEJIANGQITUIDUANWEISHELIRONGQI(TU5)。

5.jpg       通过比对其年代应该为7世纪末到8世纪初。从外形及装饰风格来看,该器物确实与唐代汉地所流行的镂雕金棺银椁形舍利器相仿,而从其埋葬方式来看,两者存在一定差异。汉地发现的舍利器都作为神圣的崇拜对象瘗埋于佛塔地宫之内,而该器物埋于殉马坑内,有可能与杀牲祭祀活动并行。一般认为吐蕃墓地的大量动物殉葬是苯教丧葬习俗的反映,8世纪初叶正是苯教在吐蕃社会占主导地位的时期,佛教的地位无足轻重。开元年间慧超所著《往五天竺国传》云:“已东吐蕃国……国王百姓者,总不识佛法,无有寺舍。”而这件舍利容器的出现,可能意味着吐蕃统治阶层将佛教器具当作丧葬祭品贡献给亡灵,折射了在8世纪初来自汉地的佛教信仰已经为青海地区的吐蕃统治阶层所认知,并在一定程度上得以接受的状态。 

       SHUSHINIANZHIHOUDECHISONGDEZANSHIQI,SHELIZHUJIANCHENGWEITUFANTONGZHIZHEZHUIPENGHELVEDUODEJIXIANGSHENGWU,DUNHUANGWENSHUS.1438《XIANSHELIBIAO》JIZAI,786NIANTUFANZHANLINGSHAZHOUYIHOU,DANGDITANGCHAOGULIWEITAOTUFANTONGZHIZHEHUANXIN,JIANG“SHAZHOUSISHELIGUYIBAISAQILI,BINGJINGUANYINGUOSHENGQUAN”XIANJITUFANZANPU,SHENXINQI“SHENTONGMOCE,BIANHUAWUQIONG……YOUFUZEYU,WUFUZEXIAO,ZUOCANGSHENGZHIXIUZHENG,WEIWANGZHEZHIJIARUI”。ZHIYUTUFANZANPURUHECHUZHI,BINGMEIYOUXIAWEN。ZANGWENDIANJI《BAXIE》JIZAICHISONGDEZANSHIQITUFANCENGYUANZHENGTIANZHU,QIANWANGMOJIETUOGUOLVEQUFOTANEIDEFOGUSHELI,ZHUANGZANGYUSANGYESIFOTAZHINEI。DANGRANZHEIMIAOSHUDESHI8SHIJIHOUBANYEFOJIAOCHEDIZHANSHENGBENJIAOBINGHUOQULEZHUDAOQUANSHIDEQINGXING。 

尚品棋牌       (ER)JIALINGPINJIAXINGXIANG 

尚品棋牌       RESHUIYIHAODAMUDEDUJINSHELIRONGQIBINGFEIGULIDEFAXIAN。MEIGUOZHIJIAGESIRENZANGPINZHONGCHUXIANLEISIDEQIWU,CONGQIXINGZHIDAXIAOHEZHUANGSHITICAILAIKAN,DOUKENENGSHISHUYUTONGYILEIZONGJIAOYONGPIN,JUTUICEYINGGAILAIZIYUQINGHAIDOULANDIQUDETUFANSHIQIMUZANG。 

       ZHIJIAGESIRENZANGDUJINYINPIANGONG16JIAN,YOU8JIANJIALINGPINJIAHE8JIANFENGNIAOZUHEERCHENG(TU6),TAMENDOUYURESHUIYIHAODAMUDUJINSHELIRONGQISHANGDELIFENGZAOXINGYIZHI,SHUANGCHIDUICHENGZHANKAI,SHENHOUDEJUANYUNZHUANGFENGWEIFEIHOUERSHANGYANG,SHUANGJIAOLIYUTUOYUANXINGLIANHUAZUOSHANG。JIALINGPINJIAWEIRENSHOUNIAOSHEN,TOUBUJUNDAIBUTONGXINGZHIDEHUAGUAN,SHUANGSHOUGEZHIHENGDI、PAIXIAO、SHENG、PIPA、YAOGUDENGLEQIZHENGZAIYANZOU。SHIPIANSHANGYOUGUILVDIFENBUZHEDUOGEXIAOKONG,YUANLAIYINGXIANGQIANYOUBAOSHI,YOUDEKONGNEICANCUNTONGDING,SHIPIANBEIHOUFUZHEYOUCANMUPIANHEJUANPIAN,KENENGYUANBENGUDINGYUMUZHIRONGQIZHISHANG,XINGZHIHEGONGNENGYURESHUIYIHAODAMUDUJINSHELIRONGQIXIANGTONG。

6.jpg       迦陵频伽和凤鸟是唐代舍利容器上的常见装饰题材。该器物无论是其功能还是装饰题材,都蕴含有浓厚的佛教意味。迦陵频伽(kalavinkas)即妙音鸟,佛教经典中用其鸣叫声比喻佛菩萨的妙处,认为它是极乐世界净土的鸟类。奏乐的迦陵频伽常与孔雀、鹦鹉、仙鹤等“奇妙可爱杂色”众鸟组合,营造烘托极乐世界氛围。在敦煌莫高窟最早出现在初唐,盛唐时期尤其流行,成为阿弥陀极乐净土的一个标识,后来也出现于药师净土变中。

7.jpg       吐蕃时期尤其喜好装饰迦陵频伽。在敦煌吐蕃时期的159号洞窟,仅南壁观经变中就有12身之多,其样貌、装束和姿态与此8件饰片上的迦陵频伽形象极为类同。同时主室盝顶龛沿还出现了一身吐蕃装束、作舞蹈状的迦陵频伽形象(图7)。这类吐蕃装束的迦陵频伽在石渠须巴神山的吐蕃摩崖石刻造像(图8)和吐蕃时期银瓶与来通杯上也出现过(图9、图10),可见吐蕃佛教对迦陵频伽形象的改造和吸收。从年代上看,这批镀金银饰片可能为8至9世纪。青海吐蕃时期墓葬出现与佛教密切相关的装饰题材,足以说明当时佛教在该地区已经有一定影响力了。从器物形制、形象特征和表现手法上,可以看出来自唐朝尤其是河西地区的强烈影响。

8.jpg9.jpg       与此器物伴出的还有一套鎏金银质马鞍具和带饰,制作技术和装饰风格与这些饰片相同,可能出自同一个手工作坊,可见马匹殉葬仍然在流行。在苯教信仰中,马匹是引导死者渡过一个个关口、顺利进入另一个世界的向导。具有浓厚佛教特色的器物与苯教丧葬习俗并存于一个墓葬,同样反映了这一时期佛教的存在形态。

       (SAN)TUFAN“WANGGUAN” 

       ZHIJIAGESIRENZANGPINZHONGYOUYIPIYINSHIPIAN,JUTUICEKENENGCHUZIYUQINGHAIJINGNEITUFANSHIQIGAOGUIGEMUZANGZHONG,BAOKUO2JIANUXING、2JIANSHANZIXING、3JIANZHANGTIAOXINGHE4JIANSANJIAOXING(TU11)。

10.jpg       这些饰片都是以鱼子纹为地,其上饰有凸起的忍冬缠枝花纹,边框上残留有若干小孔,饰片表面还遗留有较大的孔洞,可能原来镶嵌有宝石。马尔夏克将这批饰片进行复原,认为可能是两顶吐蕃国王和王后分别使用的王冠残片,霍巍基本上认同马尔夏克的复原,并将山字形的王冠样式与突厥毗伽可汗王冠和吐蕃时期摩崖石刻中大日如来的冠饰联系起来讨论,是非常有见地的。 

       CONGDUNHUANGBIHUALAIKAN,TUFANZANPUDEGUANSHITONGCHANGWEIGAOCHANTOU,WENXIANCHENGZHIWEI“CHAOXIAMAOSHOU”。DUNHUANG158KU《NIEPANBIAN》ZHONGDETUFANZANPUGUANWEICHAOXIACHANTOUWAIWEIZHUANGSHIYOUYIPAISANJIAOXINGYEZHUANG,YUTUFANSHIQIDARIRULAIHEZHUPUSAGUANSHIXIANGSI,YUCITONGSHIYEWEIZANPUHUICHUTOUGUANG,HENXIANRANSUOMIAOHUIDESHIZHEPUSAZHUANGDETUFANZANPU,YITUXIANZANPUDESHENGXINGJIQIDUIFOJIAODECHONGXINHEZHICHILIDU。ZHEIZAIDUNHUANGBIHUAZHUTUFANRENWUZHONGJINCIYILI。 

11.jpg       突出的三叶形冠饰是尼泊尔和印度波罗风格造像的重要特征之一,吐蕃进行了改造吸收,创造了高缠头外加三叶形饰片的诸佛菩萨冠饰,这在吐蕃摩崖石刻造像和敦煌绢画中非常普遍(图12)。这件银制“王冠”实际上并非真正的吐蕃赞普王冠,更有可能的是对佛和菩萨冠饰的模仿。墓主人大概是笃信佛教的吐蕃高级贵族,佩戴它用以表明其信仰佛教,或是期望在另一个世界得以永生。如果这一推断属实,则可以看到佛教对吐蕃丧葬观念和习俗的影响是非常深刻的,佛教的世俗化已经达到了一个新的高度。

       (SI)SHI、XIANGYULIANHUAZAOXING 

尚品棋牌       ZAITUFANSHIQIGEZHONGCAIZHIDEMUZANGSUIZANGPINZHONG,CHUXIANLEYIXIESHENSHOUFOJIAOYINGXIANGDETUXIANGHEZAOXING,QIZHONGYISHIZI、DAXIANGHELIANHUAZUIWEIPUBIAN,XIANSHICHUNONGHOUDEFOJIAOFENWEI。

12.jpg       狮子在佛教中是最具有标识性的动物之一。在吐蕃摩崖石刻中佛座前出现大量的双狮形象,在吐蕃墓葬中狮子的形象也相当常见。西藏的吐蕃王陵、郎县列山、拉孜查木钦、青海都兰热水墓地等高等级吐蕃墓地中,都发现有成对的石雕狮子,都兰的考肖图遗址中也发现一对(图13)。这些石狮都为蹲踞式,有卷状鬃毛,尾巴从后腿内侧翻卷上来,造型比较统一,显然遵循了一定的规制。从总体上看,吐蕃地区的石狮不论是在造型还是功能上,都应该受到唐代中原帝陵石狮的影响,在细节部分与敦煌地区的狮子造型有更多相通之处。安放石狮一般为佛教寺院的习俗,吐蕃时期修建的佛教寺院都用石狮镇妖伏魔,大力弘扬佛教的赞普赤松德赞陵前也安放石狮,其陵墓石碑上还刻有狮子立于莲花之上的图像,可以看出它与佛教的密切联系。青海都兰吐蕃时期墓葬内出土有一些木雕狮子,兴海县还发现有吐蕃时期的狮纹画像砖(图14),可能都是用作镇墓之物。

13.jpg尚品棋牌       此外,狮子图像还大量出现在青海的吐蕃金银器物上(图15),如金质马鞍、带饰、各类金银器皿等。这些器物多为贵重的生活用器,使用者都具有较高的社会地位。狮子造型多带双翼,作奔跑或直立状,风格活泼,多与其他动物如龙、麒麟、翼马、羱羊等并置,以突出其神兽属性。文献中也有对应记载,唐显庆二年(657),“吐蕃赞普遣使献金城,城上有狮子、象、驼、马、原羝等,并有人骑”。吐蕃时期的狮纹丝织品也非常受欢迎,多为两两相对置于连珠纹团窠之内,文成公主据传进藏时携带有“八狮子鸟织锦垫”。金银器和织锦上的狮子造型具有较为浓厚的中亚和西亚艺术风格,这可能与其图像的载体有一定关联性。由此可见,吐蕃佛教在传播的过程中,作为其象征的狮子图像已经广泛存在于世俗生活的很多方面了。

15.jpg       与佛教密切相关的另一种动物——大象的图像在吐蕃墓葬中发现有数例。都兰热水墓地出土的一件丝织品上有大象图像,背上搭着方形坐垫,与狮子图像并列。热水墓地还出有一件方形金饰片,上面镂刻大象,周围环绕忍冬纹,大象背部的圆形鞍垫上饰莲瓣纹和连珠纹图案(图16),形制和图案与唐代敦煌壁画和吐蕃时期榆林窟壁画所见的大象鞍鞯非常相似。在西藏赤松德赞陵前的石碑基座上(755—797),也雕刻有类似的大象图案(图17),可见它们具有共同的来源和时代特征。吐蕃时期的石雕大象比较少见,在桑耶寺乌孜大殿门前存有一对汉白玉圆雕石象(779),背部鞍鞯装饰繁缛,背驮宝珠,具有明显的唐代中原石雕风格,吐蕃时期榆林窟25窟的壁画中绘有同样的题材和造型。 

尚品棋牌        LIANHUAYESHIFOJIAOTUXIANGZHONGZUIWEIPUBIANDEZHUANGSHITICAI。QINGHAITUFANSHIQIYIZHIHEMUZANGDECHUTUWENWUZHONG,FAXIANYOUBUSHAOCILEIZHUANGSHI。ZAIWULANXIANDANANWANYIZHIFAXIANYOUSHIDIAODELIANBANXINGZHUCHU,CILEIZHUCHUZAIXIZANGDETUFANSHIQISIYUANFAXIANDUOLI,RUGAQIONGSI、SANGYESIDENG,DAGAIYUSHISHIYIYANGSHITUFANSHIQIFOJIAOSIYUANDEBIAOZHUNPEIZHI。WULANXIANQUANGOUBIHUAMUZHONGHAIYONGLIANHUAZHUANGSHIZHUTOU,KEJIANLIANHUAZUOWEIJIANZHUGOUJIANZHUANGSHITONGYANGSHIYONGYUTUFANSHIQIDEMUZANG。LIANHUAHAIYONGYIXUANRANHEBIAOXIANGELEIDONGWUHUOSHENSHOUDESHENXING,QIANSHUJIALINGPINJIAHESHIZIDENGFOJIAOXINGXIANGHENDUODOUYOULIANHUATAIZUO,JIULIANYUANBENFEIFOJIAOTICAIDESISHEN、LONG、FENGDENGYEDOUZHUANGSHIYILIANHUATAIZUO,SHUOMINGDANGSHIFOJIAOYINSUDUIQITAZONGJIAOTUXIANGDESHENTOUHEYINGXIANGSHIHENQIANGLIEDE。 

       结语 

尚品棋牌       SUITANGHETUFANSHIQISHIQINGHAISICHOUZHILUJITANGFANGUDAOXINGCHENGHEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOJIEDUAN。QINGHAIDIQUYOUYUCHUYUHANZANGZHIJIAN,JUYOUDUTEDEDILIWEIZHI,TANGCHAOFOJIAOJINGYOUTANGFANGUDAOSHURUTUFANTONGZHIDEHEXINDIQU,YUYINDUSHURUDEFOJIAOCHANSHENGPENGZHUANGYURONGHE,XINGCHENGTUFANTESEDEFOJIAOYISHU。ZAITUFANZHENGQUANDEDALIZHICHIXIA,DIFANGJUNZHENGSHOULINGHEFOJIAOGAOSENGCHENGWEIHONGCHUANFOJIAODEZHONGJIANLILIANG,TONGGUOTAMENDEJIJIHUODONG,TUFANFOJIAOYANTANGFANGUDAOXIANGHANZANGJIAOJIEDIDAISHUCHU。TAMENGENJUGEGEDIQUDEJUTIQINGXINGCAIQUSHIYINGXINGDEHONGFASHOUDUAN,ZANGDONG、YUSHUDIQUSHANDUOJIANSHI,YOUYOUGULAODEYANHUADIAOZAOJISHUHECHUANTONG,GUDAMIANJI、DUODIDIANDIDIAOZAOJIANYIDEYINXIANKEMOYAZAOXIANG,SHIZHEIYIDIQUCHENGWEIQINGZANGGAOYUANMOYASHIKEZAOXIANGZUIWEIJIZHONGDEYIGEQUYU。ZHEIXIESHIKEDIDIANDOUWEIYUTANGFANZHIJIANDEJIAOTONGYAODAOSHANG,NENGZUIDACHENGDUDIYINGXIANGWANGLAIMINZHONG。TONGSHIZAOXIANGYIDARIRULAIHEXIESHIPUSATICAIWEIZHU,TICAIXIANGDUIBIJIAODANYI,BIAOXIANZHIGUANERZHONGDIANTUCHU,JIAZHIYOURONGRULETUFANBENTUSHISUHUAXINGXIANG,ZHEIZAITUFANZHIQIANBENWUFOJIAOXINYANGCHUANTONGDEZANGDONGHEYUSHUDIQUZUYICHANSHENGJUDADEYINGXIANGLI。ERDUNHUANGDIQUYIZHIYILAISHIHANDIDEFOJIAOSHENGDI,TUFANZHANLINGHOUYINDIZHIYIJIXUDALIANGKAIKUJIANSI,HUIZHIBIHUA,JICHENGBINGCHUANGXINLEDANGDIDEFOJIAOXINYANGCHUANTONG,JIANGYINDU、NIBOERSHURUDEFOJIAOYINSURONGRUQIZHONG,SHIDEZHEIYISHIQIDONGKUCHANSHENGLEJUYOUNONGHOUTUFANTESEDEFOJIAOYISHU。TONGGUOHANZANGSENGLVWANGLAI、GONGJIANGHEZUODENGTUJING,DUNHUANGYUZANGDONGHEYUSHUDIQUZHIJIANBAOCHIZHEMIQIEDEHUDONGYUJIAOLIU。 

尚品棋牌       DUNHUANGYUYUSHUHEZANGDONGZHIJIANTONGGUOCHUANYUECHAIDAMUPENDIHEHEYUANDIQUDETANGFANGUDAOJIANLILIANXI,FOJIAOZAIZHEIXIEQUYUTONGYANGYILIUXIAYIXIEHENJI。QINGHAIDOULANKAOXIAOTUDETUFANFOTAYICUN、GUIDEDIQUCENGJINGCUNZAIDECHIGASIDENG,DOUSHUOMINGZHEIYIQUYUJUEFEIFOJIAOCHUANBODEKONGBAIQU。TUFANSHIQIMUZANGJIZHONGFAXIANYUZHEIYIQUYU,MUZANGZHONGCUNZAIDEFOJIAOYAOSUSIHUGENGNENGTIXIANTUFANFOJIAOZAIZHENGGESHEHUISHENGHUOTIXIZHONGDEZHUANGTAIHEYINGXIANG。YUQIANCHENGDEFOJIAOHONGCHUANZHESUOXIUZAODEMOYASHIKEZAOXIANGHECAIHUIDONGKUYOUSUOBUTONG,FOJIAOZAIMUZANGZHONGDEFANYINGBINGFEICHUNCUIDE、PAITADE,YISHASHENGJISIWEITEZHENGDEBENJIAOSANGZANGXISURENGRANSHIZUIPUBIANSHENZHISHIGENSHENDIGUDE,YOUQIFANYINGZAIGAODENGJIDETUFANMUZANGZHONG。DANKEYIKANCHU,FOJIAODEGUANNIANYIJINGSHENTOUDAOSHISUSHENGHUODEDUOGEFANGMIAN,FOJIAOZHONGSUOLIUXINGDEJILEIXIANGZHENGXINGTUXIANGGUANGFANCUNZAIYURICHANGSHENGHUOQIJUSHANG。ZHEIXIEYINGXIANGGENGDUODILAIZIYUHANDI,YOUQISHIHEXIDUNHUANGDIQU,BIJINGLIANGDIZHIJIANZHICHIZHIYAO,ERYIDABUFENTUFANMUZANGDEZHURENHENYOUKENENGJIUSHICENGJINGHUOYUEZAIHEXIFOJIAOQUDETUFANGUIZUJIECENG。FOJIAOYUBENJIAOZAITUFANSANGZANGXISUZHONGDEBINGCUNKENENGYIZHICHIXUDAOTUFANDEMIEWANG,ZHIDAOFOJIAOHOUHONGQITIANZANGXINGSHIDECHUXIAN。YOUYUZILIAOSUOXIAN,MUQIANSHANGWUFACONGMUZANGCAILIAOZHONGGUANCHABICIZHIJIANSHILIDEXIAOZHANG,DANJIANGLAIZHEIYINGGAIHUISHIYIGEFEICHANGZHIDEKAIZHANDEKETI。(ZUOZHE:TONGTAO ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANKAOGUYANJIUSUO)

尚品棋牌       YUANKANYU《ZHONGSHANDAXUEXUEBAO ( SHEHUIKEXUEBAN)》2019NIANDI5QI(CICHUSHENGLVEZHUSHI)