提要:汉、藏文献典籍中对于吐蕃王朝时期实行的“告身制度”都有较多的记载,但长期以来争议颇多,对于考古材料的利用很少。近年来,随着青藏高原考古的不断发展,一批新出土材料对于廓清“告身”的实物本体提供了重要的线索。文献记载的吐蕃“告身之制”,在考古发现的实物中很可能已经涵括其中,较大的可能性即为考古学界被一般泛指为“牌饰”一类的金属饰件当中,就有吐蕃“告身”的存在,至少已有金、银鎏金、银、铜等几种金属材质制成,和文献记载“告身”使用的材质及其等级划分基本可以对应,其受到北方游牧文化和唐代中原官服制度的影响十分显著。

       SHIZAITANGWENCHENGGONGZHUJINZANGSHI,“NONGZANQINYINGYUHEYUAN,JIANWANG,XINGZIXULISHENJIN,TANDAGUOFUSHILIYIZHIMEI,FUYANGYOUKUIJUZHISE”[1]。ZHEIDUANWENZISUIRANDAIYOUHANZUSHIJIADEWENHUAYOUYUEGANSECAI,DANFANYINGCHUTUFANJUNCHENDUIYUTANGCHAOFUSHILIYIBIAOXIANCHUYANGMUZHIQINGQUESHIKENENGDE。TUFANWANGCHAOJIANLIZHIHOU,SONGZANGANBUSHIXING“GAOSHENZHIDU”LAIHUAFENSHEHUIDENGJI,ZHEIYIZHIDUXUESHUJIEYIBANRENWEISHISHOUDAOTANGCHAOYIZHIDEYINGXIANG[2]。DANSHI,JIUJINGHEWEI“GAOSHEN”?ZAIWENWUKAOGUSHANGSHIFOUYILIUYOUSHIWUHENJIKEYUWENXIANXIANGHUCANZHAOBIDING?DUICILILAIYOUBUTONGRENSHI。

       RIBENXUEZHESHANKOURUIFENGRENWEI,CIZHONGGAOSHENSHISHIYONGJIN、YIN、TONG、YUSHIDENGGEZHONGCAILIAOYANMOCHENGFEN,RANHOUYONGZHEIYANGDEFENZHIJIANGDENGJIGUANWEISHUXIEYUZHISHANGHUOJUANBOZHISHANG,YIBIANBIESHENFENDIWEI[3]。DANRUOJIEHEWENXIANJIZAILAIKAN,YEYOULINGWAIDEKENENGXING。

尚品棋牌       TANGRENDUYOU《TONGDIAN》JIZAITUFANGUANZHIZHANGSHIZHIDUYUN:“QIGUANZHANGSHIYOUWUDENG,YIWEISESE,ERWEIJIN,SANWEIJINSHIYINSHANG,SIWEIYIN,WUWEISHUTONG,GEYIFANGYUANSANCUN,HESHANGZHUANGZHI,ANBOQIANYIBIANGUIJIAN”[4]。《XINTANGSHU·TUFANCHUAN》ZAI:“(TUFAN)QIGUANZHIZHANGSHI,ZUISHANGSESE,JINCIZHI,JINTUYINYOUCIZHI,YINCIZHI,ZUIXIAZHITONGZHI。CHADAXIAO,ZHUIBEIQIANYIBIANGUIJIAN”[5]。《CEFUYUANGUI·WAICHENBU·TUFENGSAN》ZAI:“ZIHAOTUFANWEIBAOJI,JUEWEIZEYIBAOZHU、DASESE、XIAOSESE、DAYIN、XIAOYIN、DAZHENSHI、XIAOZHENSHI、DATONG、XIAOTONGDENGWEIGAOSHEN,YIBIEGAOXIA”[6]。TONGSHUYOUZAI:“(TUFAN)DALVEQIGUANZHANGSHIYOUWUDENG,YIWEISESE,ERWEIJIN,SANWEIJINSHIYINSHANG,SIWEIYIN,WUWEISHUTONG。GEYIFANGYUANSANCUNHESHANGZHUANGZHI,ANBOQIAN,YIBIEGUIJIAN”[7]。TONGSHUHAIJIZAITANGZHENYUANSHIERNIAN(796NIAN)SANYUE,WEIGAOSHOUJIANGMANQIQIANHU,“DETUFANSUOCIJINZIGAOSHENWUSHIWUPIAN”[8]

尚品棋牌       CONGSHANGSHUHANWENWENXIANJIZAIKEZHI,TANGSONGSHIQIDUITUFANSHEHUIGUANJIEZHANGSHIYIYOUXIANGDANGRENZHI,GUINAQILAIYOUSANGEXIANZHUTEDIAN:QIYI,SHIYONGSESE、JIN、JINSHANGSHIYIN、YIN、TONGDENGWUZHONGZHIDIDECAILIAOZHIZUODEBIAOSHIXINGHUIZHANGLAIBIAOXIANQIDENGJICHABIE;QIER,GAOSHENDEXINGZHUANG、DAXIAOGEYOUCHABIEDENGCI,HUOFANGHUOYUAN,CONGSHANGWENZHONGYI“PIAN”ZUOWEIJILIANGDANWEIDEQINGXINGTUICE,SIXINGZHUANGBIANPING,CHICUNYI“SANCUN”WEIDUO;QISAN,QIANZHUANGSHIYONGDEFANGFASHIZHUIYUZHIWU“HE”SHANG,WEIZHIDUOZAI“BOQIAN”HUO“BEIQIAN”。

       ZAIZANGWENWENXIANZHONG,DUIYUTUFANGAOSHENYEYOUJIZAI。RU《DUNHUANGBENTUFANLISHIWENSHU》P.T.1287《ZANPUCHUANJI》ZHONGJIZAISONGZANGANBUYUCHENXIAWEISHIYICEDEMENGSHIZHONGCHENG:“YICEZHONGZHENBUER,NISIHOU,WOWEIERYINGZANG,SHAMABAIPIYIXINGLIANG,ZISUNHOUDAIWULUNHEREN,JUNCIYIJINZI,BUHUIDUANJUE”[9]。CIWAI,LINGYIFENDUNHUANGGUZANGWENXIEJUANP.T.1071WEI《SHOULIESHANGRENPEICHANGLV》,QIZHONGGUIDINGANZHAOTUFANSHEHUIDENGJI,PEICHANGMINGJIADEGAODIDENGCIGONGFENWEIJIUDENG,QIZHONGDIERDENGWEIYUZIGAOSHEN;DISANDENGWEIJINZIGAOSHEN;DISIDENGWEI“POLUOMI”GAOSHEN;DIWUDENGWEIYINZIGAOSHEN;DILIUDENGWEIHUANGTONGGAOSHEN;DIQIDENGWEIHONGTONGGAOSHEN;DIBADENGWEIHONGTONGGAOSHEN。CHIYOUHONGTONGGAOSHENYISHANGZHEWEITUFANSHANGCENGSHEHUICHENGYUAN,BUJINBENRENJUYOUSHENFENDIWEI,HAIKEYINBIQISHIZU;HONGTONGGAOSHENYIXIAZHEZEWEISHEHUIXIACENGCHENGYUAN;ZUIGAODENGJIZHEJIDIYIDENGJIZHEDALUN、DANEICHEN、ZANPUJIUSHIPINGZHANGSHI、FUDALUNDENGSIZHONGDASHANGLUNJIQIZU、FUMEIYOUJUTIDEGAOSHENGUIDING,KENENGBUBICIYIGAOSHEN[10]。ANZHAODUNHUANGGUZANGWENXIEJUANDEJIZAI,TUFANSHEHUISHIXINGDEDENGJIYUGAOSHENZHIZHISUIRANKEFENWEIRUOGANDENGJI,DANSHIJISHANGZUOWEIBIAOSHIXITONGDEGAOSHENGONGYOULIUZHONG,JIYU、JIN、YINSHANGJIN(POLUOMI,SHIJISHANGJIYINLIUJIN)、YIN、HUANGTONG、HONGTONG。ZAISHIDAIGENGWEIWANJINDEZANGWENDIANJI《XIANZHEXIYAN》DANGZHONG,YEJIZAILELIUZHONGZHIDIDEGAOSHEN:“SUOWEIGAOSHEN,ZUISHANGZHEWEIJIN、YULIANGZHONG,CIWEIYINYUPOLUOMI,ZAICIWEITONGYUTIEWENZIGAOSHEN。ZONGWEILIUZHONG,GAOSHENGEFENDAXIAOLIANGLEI,ZONGGONGSHIERJI”。TONGSHUZHONGHAITEBIEJIESHICHENG:“ZUOZHANYONGSHICIYITIEWENZIGAOSHEN,HUIBAISEYINGMUBINGHUAYISHUIWENDEWENZIGAOSHENSHOUYUYIBANSHUMIN”[11]。

       SHIFENMINGXIAN,ZANGWENWENXIANZHONGSUOJIZAIDEGAOSHENZHIDUYAOBIHANWENWENXIANSUOJIGENGWEIFUZA,CHULEYUSHISESE、HUANGJIN、YINSHANGLIUJIN、YIN、TONGDENGWUGEDADELEIBIEZHIWAI,HAICHUXIANLETIE、YINGMUDENGBUJIANZHUHANWENWENXIANDEGAOSHEN。CENGJINGYOUXUEZHESHITUDUICIXIANXIANGZUOCHUJIESHI,RENWEITUFANGAOSHENZHIDUZHONGDE“LIUGAOSHEN”YINGWEISESE、JIN、POLUOMI(JINTUYIN)、ZHENSHI、TONGLIUDENG,YUHANWENSHIJISHEJIDELIUZHONGGAOSHENWENHE。TIEGAOSHENYEDANGCUNZAI,DANZHISHOUYUYONGSHI,BUPAIZAI“LIUGAOSHEN”ZHINEI[12]。BIZHERENWEI,TUFANSHIDAIGAOSHENZHIDUSHIXINGDEQINGKUANGKENENGYUANBIWENXIANJIZAIDEFUZADEDUO,CONGRUOGANJIXIANGGUANCHA,GAOSHENJIYOUCHANGSHEXINGZHIZHE,YEYOULINSHIXINGBANFAZHE(RUSHANGWENZHONGSUOYINTIEZHIGAOSHEN);ZAIMEIYILEIGAOSHENZHIZHONG,KENENGYOUCUNZAIDAXIAO、DENGJIDEQUBIE,SUOXUANYONGDEZHIZUOCAILIAOCHULESHANGSHUSESEDENGBAOSHILEIYIJIJIN、YINLIUJIN、YIN、TONGDENGZHIDIWAI,HAIKEYIGENJUXUYAOZHIZUOTIEZHI、MUZHIDEGAOSHENBANFAGUIZU、GUANYUANZHIWAIDEYOUGONGZHIYONGSHIHUOPINGMIN。HANWENWENXIANYUZANGWENWENXIANZHIJIANCUNZAIDEZHEIXIECHAYIXING,JIYOUKENENGYUSHIDAIBUTONGXIANGGUAN,YEKENENGYUBUTONGWENHUAZHIJIANZAILIJIESHANGDECHAYIYOUGUAN,BUBIQIANGQIULIANGZHEZHIJIANDUIYINGZHENGQI。CONGZONGTISHANGKAN,ZHISHAOWOMENKEYIKENDING,JISHIWOMENCHENGRENDANGSHIBANFADE“GAOSHEN”DANGZHONGBUPAICHUYOUSHANKOURUIFENGXIANSHENGTICHUDENEIZHONGCAIYONGZHIZHI、JUANBOLEISHUXIEDELEIXINGCUNZAI,DANTONGYANGYEBUNENGPAICHUSHIYONGGEZHONGZHIDIDECAILIAOZHIZUODEKEYIPEIDAIYUYIWUXIANZHUWEIZHIZHISHANG、JUYOULEISIJINTIAN“JUNXIAN”BIAOSHIYIYIDEHUIJISHIDEGAOSHENDECUNZAI。

       NEIME,ZHEILEI“GAOSHEN”DESHIWUXINGTAISHIFOUNENGGOUBEIKAOGUFAXIANDEWENWUSUOZHENGSHINI?BIZHEZHUYIDAO,ZAIQINGHAI、XIZANGDENGDITUFANMUZANGZHONG,CENGJINGCHUTUGUOYIPIBEIDINGMINGWEI“JINPAISHI”DEHUANGJINSHIJIAN,TAMENYIBANJUNWEIFANGXINGHUOZHANGFANGXING,ZHIZUOGONGYISHIFENJINGMEI,FENBIECAIYONGLECHUISHE、QIASI、ZANKE、ZUANKONG、PAOGUANG、HANJIE、XIANGQIANDENGGEZHONGGONGYI,ZAITONGZHIDEDIBANSHANGYONGJINSIZUOCHENGLIANZHUWEN、YUZIDIWEN,PAISHIBIAOMIANYONGJINPIANZUOCHENGJINHUA,BINGZAIHUABANNEIXIANGQIANLVSONGSHIZHILEIDEBAOSHI。ZILIEJUSHULI:

尚品棋牌       1. LIANZHUWENYUZIWENDIXIANGQIANLVSONGSHIJINPAISHI(BIANHAOBUXIANG):QINGHAIDOULANRESHUIYIHAODAMUFENGTUNEICHUTU。LVECHENGFANGXING,YONGJINSIZUOCHENGYUZIWENDI,BIANKUANGSHIYILIANZHUWEN,ZHONGYANGYONGJINPIANZUOCHENGSANBANHUAYEWEN,HUABANZHONGXIANGQIANYILVSONGSHI(TUYI :2 )[13]。

尚品棋牌       2.LIANZHUWENXIANGQIANLVSONGSHIJINPAISHI(BIANHAOBUXIANG):QINGHAIDOULANRESHUITUFANYIHAODAMUFENGTUNEICHUTU。FANGXING,ZHOUBIANSHIYILIANZHUWEN,ZHONGYANGYONGJINPIANZUOCHENGJINHUA,HUABANNEIXIANGQIANYILVSONGSHI(TUYI :7)[14]。

       3.JUANCAOWENXIANGQIANLVSONGSHIJINPAISHI(99DRNM3:1):QINGHAIDOULANRESHUIHENANANTUFANDI3HAOMUDAODONGRAOTUZHONGCHUTU。ZHANGFANGXING,ZHANG4.2、KUAN3cm,ZHUTIWENYANGWEISANYEJUANCAOWEN,CHENGPINZIXING。JINPAISIJIAOYOUSIGEZANKONG,ZHIJING0.4 cm,YUANXIANGQIANYOUSIKELVSONGSHI,XIANCUNSANKE,XINGZHUANGBUSHENGUIZE,BIAOMIANMOGUANG。JINPAISHIBEIMIANSIJIAOYONGHANYAO(SHANGKEGUANCHADAOHANYAOZHONGDETONGXIU)HANJIELESIGENJINSI(ZHIJINGYUE0.1 cm),JUNCAN,TUICESHIZUOZHUANGSHIZHIYONG。JINPAIXICHUISHEZHICHENG,CHUIYINQINGXIKEJIAN,BIAOMIANJINGGUOPAOGUANG[15]。

吐蕃“告身制度”的考古学新印证.jpg图:镶嵌绿松石金牌饰

2、7为青海都兰热水吐蕃一号墓出土;余为都兰吐蕃墓中采集

       YUSHANGSHUJINPAISHIXINGZHIXIANGTONGZHEZAIQINGHAIDOULANMUZANGDANGZHONGHAIFAXIANYOUSHULI,DANJUNXICONGBEIDAOMUZANGZHONGSUOHUODECAIJIPIN,WUMINGQUECHUTUDANWEI,XIANJUNSHOUZANGYUQINGHAISHENGWENWUKAOGUYANJIUSUONEI(CANJIANTUYI:3、4、5、6 )。CIWAI,JULINMEICUN、QIDONGFANGLIANGWEIXIANSHENGZAIDOULANTUFANMUFAJUEQIJIANDEDIAOCHA,BEIDAOHOUXIANCUNYUDOULANXIANGONGANJUDETUFANMUZANGCHUTUWENWUZHONG,YEYOUTONGLEIPAISHI[16]。

       DUIYUZHEILEIPAISHIDEYONGTU,MUQIANSHANGWUDINGLUN,DANBIZHEGUANCHAZHUYIDAO,ZAITUFANSHIQICHUTUDEZHONGDUOJINYINQIDANGZHONG,ZHEILEIJINPAISHISUIRANTIXINGJIAOXIAO,DANZAOXINGQUESHIFENJINGMEI,CONGQISIJIAOHUOBIANYUANSHANGDAIYOUXIAOKONG,HUOZAIBEIMIANDAIYOUKOUSHIZHEIYIDIANLAIJIAYIPANDUAN,SIHUKEYIZHUIXIYUYIWU、ZHIWUHUOZHEDAISHIZHISHANG,GUBIZHETUICEQIYOUKENENGSHIYIZHONGYONGYURENWUFUSHISHANGDESHIJIAN[17]。DUIZHAOWENXIANJIZAILAIKAN,ZHEILEIPAISHIXINGZHUANGBIANPING,ZHIZUOJINGLIANG,SHANGMIANXIANGQIANYOULVSONGSHIDENGBAOSHI,BEIMIANYOUCHUANKONGHUOKOUSHIKEYIZHUIXI,BIAOSHIXINGTEZHENGXIANZHU,ZHEIHEWENXIANSUOZAIDETUFAN“GAOSHEN”SIHUSHIFENJIEJIN。SUIRANWOMENMUQIANHAIMEIYOUQUEZAODEZHENGJUZHENGMINGQIJIUSHIGAOSHEN,DANZHEIZHONGKENENGXINGQUESHIBUNENGPAICHUDE,ZHISHAOKEBEICANKAO。

       TUFANDE“GAOSHENZHIZHI”SHIQIDENGJIZHIDUHEFUSHILIZHIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,DEDAOHAN、ZANGWENXIANLIANGGEFANGMIANDEZUOZHENG。JIUQILAIYUAN,BIZHERENWEIYOULIANGGETUJINGZHIDEZHUYI:QIYI,SHILAIYUANYUBEIFANGYOUMUMINZUDEFUSHIXISU;QIER,SHISHOUDAOTANGCHAOGUANFUZHIDUDEYINGXIANG。JU《TANGHUIYAO》JIZAI,SHANGYUANYUANNIAN(675NIAN)BAYUE,TANGCHAOCHIDING:“YIPINYIXIAWENGUANBINGDAISHOUJIN、SUANDAI、DAOZI、LISHI,QIWUGUANYUDAIZHEYITINGZHI。WENGUANSANPINYISHANGFUZI,JINYUDAI,SHISANKUA。SIPINFUSHENFEI,JINDAI,SHIYIKUA。WUPINFUQIANFEI,JINDAI,SHIKUA。LIUPINFUSHENLV,QIPINFUQIANLV,BINGYINDAI,JIUKUA。BAPINFUSHENQING,JIUPINFUQIANQING,BINGZHENSHIDAI,BAKUA。SHURENFUHUANGTONGTIEDAI,QIKUA”。TONGSHUYOUZAI:“JINGYUNERNIAN(711NIAN)SIYUEERSHISIRIZHI:‘LINGNEIWAIGUANYISHANGYUANYUANNIANCHI,WENWUGUANXIANDAIQISHI。WEIDAO、DAOZI、LISHI、QIBIZHEN、HUIJUEZHENTONG、HUOSHIDAI、ZHANSHEDENG。QIYAODAI,YIPINZHIWUPINBINGYONGJIN,LIUPINZHIQIPINBINGYONGYIN,BAPINJIUPINBINGYONGZHENSHI”[18]。TANGDAIGUANFUCAIYONGDEZHEIZHONG“GEDAIZHIZHI”,XISHOUBEIFANGYOUMUMINZUZHIYINGXIANG,SONGRENSHENKUO《MENGXIBITAN》JUANYIJIANGDESHIFENTOUCHE:“ZHONGGUOYIGUAN,ZIBEIQIYILAI,NAIQUANYONGHUFU。ZHAIXIUFEILV,DUANYI,ZHANGYAOXUE,YOUXIEXIEDAI,JIEHUFUYE……DAIYISUOCHUIZHIXIEXIE,GAIYUPEIDAIGONGJIAN、FENDUI、SUANNANG、DAOLIZHILEI。ZIHOUSUIQUXIEXIE,ERYOUCUNQIHUAN,HUANSUOYIXIANXIEXIE,RUMAZHIDIGEN,JIJINRIZHIDAIKUAYE”[19]。RUSHENKUOSUOYAN,SUOWEI“XIEXIEDAI”,XIZAIGEDAIZHISHANGXIGUAGEZHONGXIAOJIANQIWU,ZHEISHIYUANYUBEIFANGYOUMUMINZUDEFUSHITEDIAN,HOUWEIHANMINZUSUOXISHOUGAIZAO,ZAISHANXI、HENANDENGDIKAOGUCHUTUDETAOYONG、BIHUAZHONGYIYOUDALIANGTUXIANGCAILIAOKEYIZUOZHENG。TUFANYUBEIFANGYOUMUMINZUYOUZHEMIQIEDELIANXIHEJIAOWANG,SHOUQIYINGXIANGZAISUONANMIAN。DANSHI,RUOCONGZHENGGETUFAN“GAOSHENZHIZHI”ZAIXUANYONGCAILIAOSHANGXINGCHENGDEYANGEDENGJIZHIDULAIKAN,QUEYOUMINGXIANSHISHOUDAOTANGDAIGUANFUZHIDUDEYINGXIANG。CONGSHANGYINTANGDAIGUANFUZHIDULAIKAN,YIJIN、YIN、ZHENSHI、HUANGTONG、TIEDENGWUZHONGZHIDIXINGCHENGKUADAISHANGDEZHUANGSHIWU,BINGJIEHEYIKUADAIDEDUOSHAOLAIBIAOXIANQIDENGJIZHIDUDEQUBIE,RUOJIANGTUFANDE“GAOSHENZHIZHI”YUZHIBIJIAO,KEYIFAXIANLIANGZHEZHIJIANPOJUGONGTONGZHIDIAN。

       DANSHI,ZHEILIYOUYIGEZHIDEGUANZHUDEWENTI。ANZHAO《TANGHUIYAO》DEJIZAI,YONGJIN、YIN、ZHENSHI、HUANGTONG、TIEDENGWUZHONGZHIDIZHICHENGSHIJIAN,XIANRANSHIZUOWEIGEDAISHANGDEZHUANGSHIWUJIANSHIYONGDE。SUOWEI“JINYUDAI,SHISANKUA”,SHIZHIGEDAISHANGDEKUAJIANSHIYIJIN、YUZHICHENG,FUZHEZAIGEDAIZHISHANG,QISHULIANGANTANGDAIGUANZHIGUIDINGWEISHISANGEKUAJIANXINGCHENGYITAOZUHE。ER“JINDAI,SHIYIKUA”,YESHIZHIGEDAISHANGDEKUAJIANSHIYONGHUANGJINZHICHENG,SHULIANGANDENGJIGUIDINGWEISHIYIGEKUAJIANZUCHENGYITAO。YICITUIZHI,“YINDAI,JIUKUA”、“ZHENSHIDAI,BAKUA”、“HUANGTONGTIEDAI,QIKUA”,DOUSHIZHIGEDAISHANGYONGBUTONGZHIDIZHIZUODEKUAJIANJIQISHULIANGERYAN。ERTUFANDE“GAOSHEN”ZHIZHIANZHAOQIANYINHANWENWENXIANDEJIZAI,QISHIYONGFANGSHIQUESHI“ZHUIBEIQIANYIBIANGUIJIAN”;“ANBOQIAN,YIBIEGUIJIAN”,YUTANGDAIGUANFUSHIYONGYUGEDAIZHISHANGDESHIJIANZAIZHUANGSHIBUWEISHANGSIHUYOUSUOBUTONG。RANERWENTIZAIYU,ZHEIXIEJIZAIMUQIANYEBINGWEIDEDAOKAOGUSHIWUZILIAOHUOTUXIANGZILIAODEZHENGSHI。QIANWENZHONGBIZHEGENJUQINGHAIDOULANDENGDICHUTUDEYIPIJINYINSHIJIANTUICEQIYONGTUYOUKENENGSHIZHUIXIYUYIWU、ZHIWUHUOZHEDAISHIZHISHANG,DANQUEWUFAKENDINGQIZHUANGSHIDEBUWEIJINJINXIANYUFUSHISHANGDE“BEIQIAN”HUO“BOQIAN”。

       NEIME,YOUWUKENENGTUFAN“GAOSHEN”DESHIYONGFANGFAZHIYIYEHETANGDAIGUANFUZHIDUYIYANG,YEYOUKENENGSHIGEDAISHANGMOUZHONGLEISIYU“KUA”YILEIDESHIJIANNI?JINNIANLAIDEKAOGUFAXIAN,TIGONGLEYIXIEZHONGYAODEXIANSUO。SHOUXIANKEYIQUERENDESHI,TUFANWANGCHAODEFUSHIZHIDUZHONG,CUNZAIZHEYUTANGDAIGUANFUGEDAIZHIZHIJIWEIXIANGSIDE“XIEXIEDAI”HE“KUADAI”SHIYANG。ZAIZANGDONGCHANGDOUDIQUMANGKANGXIANJINGNEIFAXIANDEYICHUMINGWEI“LANGBALANGZENG(YIJIPILUZHENEI)”DETUFANSHIQIFOJIAOSHIKEZAOXIANG,TICAIWEIDARIRULAIHEBADAPUSA,SUIRANZAOXIANGSHUYUFOJIAOXINGXIANG,DANZAIYISHISHANGQUEFANYINGCHUTUFANWANGCHAOSHIQIWANGSHIGUIZUFUSHIDETEDIAN,CIDIANTANGZHONGDEDARIRULAIHEBADAPUSAXIANGDOUSHITOUZHAGAOJITOUJIN,SHENCHUANDAIYOUSANJIAOXINGDAFANLINGDEZHANGPAO,YAOJIANSHUDAI。ERZHENGSHIZAISHIXIANGYAOJIANDEDAISHISHANG,WOMENKEYIQINGXIDIGUANCHADAOSHANGMIANZHUANGSHIYOUZHANGFANGXINGHUOTUOYUANXINGDEDUOGEDAIKUA。JU2009NIANDEDIAOCHAZILIAOBAOGAO,CIDIANXIANCUNDEDARIRULAIXIANGSHENZHESANJIAOFANLINGKUOXIUPAOFU,YAOXIKUANDAI,QIANFUDIAOCHUPINGZHIDEDAIYUAN,SHANGMIANZAIYONGYICENGQIANFUDIAODIAOCHUFANGXINGDEDAIKUA,KUAYUDAIJIHUTONGKUAN,DAIWEICONGZUOCEYAOBUSHENCHUHOUCHARUDAIXIA,RANHOUCONGDAIXIASHENCHU,XIEXIANGYOUXIAFANG。DAIWEIKEGUANCHADAOTUOWEI。LINGWAI,ZAIQIZUOYOULIANGCEPAILIEDEBADAPUSAXIANGSHANG,YEKEGUANCHADAOXIANGTONGDEDAISHI,QIZHONGYOUDEQIANFUDIAO6KUAIZHANGFANGXINGDAIKUA,YOUDEDAIKUADEXINGZHUANGWEITUOYUANXING,DAIWEIJUNSHICONGYAOBUZUOHOUFANGSHENCHUHOUCHARUDAIXIA,XIEXIANGYOUXIASHENCHU,KEGUANCHADAOWEIBUDETUOWEI。QIZHONGDAISHIJIAOWEIFUZADEWEIDIANNEIZUOCEDONGXIANGDI4ZUNPUSAXIANG,DAISHANGYOU7GEDAIKUA,ZIZUOERYOUFENWEILIANGZU,GEZUWAICEDEKUAXIAFENBIECHUIYOU“XIEXIEDAI”,DAIWEICONGZUOHOUCEYAOBUCHARUYAODAINEIXIANGYOUXIACHUI,YIBINGZHIDAIQIAOXIAODAOYECONGYOUSHANGXIANGZUOXIAXIECHARUDAINEI,DAOBINGSHANGYOUYIXIDAIYUYAODAIXIANGLIAN。[20]

       QINGHAIGUOLIMUFAXIANDEYIPITUFANSHIQIDEMUGUANBANHUASHANG,BUSHAOTUFANGUIZUHEQISHIYAOJIANSUOXIGEDAISHANGYEKEYIGUANCHADAOZHUANGSHIYOUSHUGEFANGXINGDEKUAPIAN,SHENZHIHAIKEYIGUANCHADAOCONGKUAPIANSHANGCHUANXICHUIXUANXIALAIDE“XIEXIEDAI”,SHANGMIANGUAXIZHEJIANNANGDENGWU[21]。

尚品棋牌       YUSHANGSHUKAOGUTUXIANGZILIAOSHANGFANYINGDEDAISHIKEYIXIANGHUDUIYINGDE,SHIZHEIZHONGZHUANGSHIZAIGEDAISHANGDEJIN、YINDAIKUADESHIWU,JINNIANLAIYEYOUFAXIANHELIUCHUAN。RUXIANGGANGMENGDIEXUANSHOUJIDAODEYIPITUFANJINYINQIDANGZHONG,JIUYOURUOGANZUZHEIYANGDEDAISHI。ZILIEJUSHULIRUXIA:

       1.LUWENJINDAISHIYIZUQIJIAN:CIZUDAISHIYOUDAIKOU、FANGXINGKUAPIANHETUOWEIZUCHENG,ZHUWENWEIYIJUANTUZHONGLAIFUCHENGTUANDELUWEN,TUOWEIHEFANGXINGKUAPIANSIJIAOHEZHONGXINYOULOUKONGDEKONGDONG,KONGDONGNEIYOUDEHAICANCUNZHEDAMOGUANGJIEDELVSONGSHIZHU。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZAIFANGXINGKUAPIANDEXIAFANG,JUNYOUYIZHANGFANGXINGDEKONGDONG,YINGSHIGONGCHUANXIPIDAICHUIGUAWUPINZHIYONG[22]

       2.HUABANWENJINDAISHIYIZUSHILIUJIAN:

尚品棋牌       ZHEIZUDAIJUYOUDAIKOU、HUXING、FANGXINGDEKUAPIANYIJIXINXINGDESHIPIANDENGZUCHENG,KUAPIANJUNZUOCHENGHUADUOXING,HUABANZHONGKONG,BUFENKONGDONGNEICANCUNZHEYIKEXIANGQIANDELVSONGSHI,ZAIMEIKUAIKUAPIANDEXIAFANG,YOUYIZHANGFANGXINGDECHUANKONG,RUTONGSHANGLIYEYINGDANGSHIGONGCHUANXIPIDAICHUIGUAWUPINZHIYONG[23]。

       3.XIANGBAOSHIHUAWENDAISHIYIZU:

尚品棋牌       ZHEIZUKUAPIANYOUBUTONGDEWENSHIZUCHENG,JUNXIHUABANWENGOUCHENGYICENGTUAN,HUABANWENDEZHONGYANGHESIPIANYEBANDEZHONGYANGGELIUCHUYIKONG,ZAIKONGNEIXIANGQIANYILVSONGSHI、HONGBAOSHIDENG,BAOSHIDEBIAOMIANDAMOGUANGJIE,LVETUCHUYUWENSHIZHIWAI,GENGJULITIGAN。ZAIJIAODADESIKUAIFANGXINGKUAPIANXIAFANG,YEKEYIGUANCHADAOZHANGFANGXINGDECHUANKONG,YONGTUYUSHANGSHULIANGLIDAISHIYINGXIANGTONG。ZHEIZUDAISHIZHONGYOULIANGJIANSHIYIJIANPIDAIWEIBUDEKUAPIAN,WENSHIWEIHUABANWEN,ZHONGYOUYUANXINGLOUKONG,LUCHUCANCUNZAIKUAPIANNEIDEYIDUANPIDAI。ZHEILIANGPIANDAISHIDEKEGUIZHICHUZHENGZAIYUTAHEYUANPEIDEPIDAILIANJIEZAIYIQI,KEYIRANGRENGUANCHADAOZHEILEIJINSHUKUAPIANSHIRUHESHIYONGYUPIDAIZHISHANGDE。CONGCANCUNPIDAIBEIMIANGUANCHA,KUAPIANSIJIAOSHANGYOUJINDING,CHUANTOUPIDAIHOUWANQUGUDINGYUPIDAIZHISHANG[24]。

       4.TUANHUALOUKONGDAISHIYIZU:

       ZHEIZUDAISHIYESHIYOUDAIKOUHESHIPAI(KUAPIAN)LIANGBUFENZUCHENG,QIZHONGDAIKOUYOUYIGECHENGTUOYUANXINGDEKOUKUANGYUHUODONGDEKOUSHEZUCHENG,HOUJIEYIGEHUABANXINGDEKUAPIAN。YOUQIZHENGUIDESHI,ZAIZHEIZUSHIPAISHANGYOULIANGJIANKUAPIANDEHOUMIANCANCUNYOUPIYAODAI(ZENG)DECANDUAN,ZHEIYEWEIWOMENTIGONGLEGUANCHAPIYAODAIYUJINDAISHIZHIJIANANZHUANGFANGSHIJIHAODECANKAOZILIAO。KEYIGUANCHADAO,QIANZHUANGFANGFAWEI:ZAIHENGXIANGDEPIYAODAISHANGMIANFENGZHUIYIKUAPIAN,KUAPIANYUKUAPIANZHIJIANJIANGEYOUYIDINGJULI,KUAPIANXIAFANGKAIYOUYIZHANGFANGXINGDEXIAOKOU,YONGJIAOZHAIDEPIDAICONGZHONGCHUANGUO,ZAIYONGJINKOUKUOJIEYUYAODAIZHISHANG。GUOQUFAXIANDEKAOGUCAILIAOYOUYUPIZHIDEYAODAIHEQITADAIZIJUNYIFUXIUBUCUN,JINCUNJINSHUDAIKOU,WUFATUIZHIGEDAIYUJINSHUSHIJIANZHIJIANJUTIDEXIJIEFANGFA,ZHEIZUDAISHIDECHUTU,SHIYIGEHENHAODESHILI [25]。

尚品棋牌       YISHANGJUCHUZHEIJIZUDAIJUGONGTONGDETEDIANZAIYU:TAMENDOUKEYICHUANXIZAIPIDAIZHISHANGZUOWEIGEDAIDEZHUANGSHIXINGJINSHUFUJIAN;DAIJUDEDAIKOU、TUOWEIHEKUAPIANYOUJIN、YINLIUJIN、YINDENGBUTONGZHIDI;ZAIJINSHUQIBIAOZHISHANG,WANGWANGHAIXIANGQIANYILVSONGSHIDENGGELEIBAOSHI。MUQIANDUIYUZHEIPIJINYINQIDESHIDAIHEMINZUSHUXING,YOUYUQUEFAKAOGUCHUTUBEIJING,HAIBUNENGWANQUANJIAYIPANDING,DANJIEHEGUOQUZAIQINGHAI、XIZANGDENGDITUFANMUZANGZHONGFAXIANDEJINYINQIJIAYIBIJIAO,BIZHETUICEQIYINGDANGSHUYUTUFANWANGCHAOSHIDAI(JIGONGYUAN7—9SHIJI)TUFANGAOJIGUIZUDEQIYONG[26]。LEISIMENGDIEXUANSUOZANGDEZHEILEIJINYINQI,JINNIANLAIZAIDALUYIXIEBOWUGUANZHONGYEYOUSHOUZANG,LAIYUANHENKENENGDOUSHICHUZIYIPIBEIDAOJUEDETUFANDAMU。BEIJINGDAXUELINMEICUNJIAOSHOUCENGTIGONGJIBIZHEYIPILIUSANZAIGUONEIMOUSHENGJIBOWUGUANNEIDETUFANJINYINQIZILIAO,DANGZHONGYEYOUCHENGZUTAODE“JINPAISHI”,QIXINGZHITEDIANHEQIANJUQINGHAIDOULANRESHUITUFANMUZANGZHONGSUOCHUDEJINPAISHIWANQUANXIANGSI,HENKENENGZAISHIYONGFANGFASHANGYESHIXIANGTONGDE。

       JIANGSHANGSHUWENXIANHEKAOGUCAILIAOSUOTIGONGDEXIANSUOZHENGHEQILAIKAOLV,BIZHERENWEIKEYIDECHUZHEIYANGJIDIANJIBENDERENSHI:

尚品棋牌       QIYI,WENXIANJIZAIDETUFAN“GAOSHENZHIZHI”,ZAIKAOGUFAXIANDESHIWUZHONGHENKENENGYIJINGHANKUOQIZHONG,ZHISHIMUQIANWOMENHAIMEIYOUCONGZHONGMINGQUEJIAYIZHIRENERYI。QIZHONGJIAODADEYIZHONGKENENGXING,JISHIZHEIPIBEIYIBANFANCHENGWEI“PAISHI”DEJINSHUSHIJIANDANGZHONG,JIUYOUTUFAN“GAOSHEN”DECUNZAI。YINWEICONGQIZHIDISHANGKAN,MUQIANFAXIANDEPAISHIZHISHAOYIYOUJIN、YINLIUJIN、YIN、TONGDENGJIZHONGJINSHUCAIZHIZHICHENG,ZHEIHEWENXIANJIZAI“GAOSHEN”SHIYONGDECAIZHIJIQIDENGJIHUAFENJIBENKEYIDUIYING。“ZHENSHI”ZUOWEIYIZHONGGUIZHONGCAIZHIZAIZHONGYAHEXIYUGEGUOCENGJINGSHIFENLIUXING[27],YONGYIN、“ZHENSHI”DENGCAIZHIZHIZUOYAODAIDEZUOFAYECENGZAITULUFANCHUTUWENSHUZHONGBEIZHENGSHI[28]。TUFANYUXIYUGUANXIMIQIE,SUOYIZHEIZHONGGUIZHONGCAIZHIBEITUFANSUOJIESHOUDEKENENGXINGSHENDA。JIUJING“ZHENSHI”WEIHEWUXUESHUJIEHAIYOUZHENGLUN,DADUOSHUXUEZHEQINGXIANGYUWEIHUANGTONG[29]。ZHIYU《TANGHUIYAO》DENGWENXIANJIZAIZHONGTIJITUFAN“GAOSHEN”ZUIGAODENGJIWEI“SESE”,ZUILINGRENFEIJIE,YINWEIMUQIANTUFANKAOGUCAILIAOZHONGBINGWEIFAXIANCHUNCUISHIYONGYUSHIZHIZUODE“GAOSHEN”。GUOQUZAIHANDICHUTUDEGEDAIDANGZHONG,YOUYUWENHUACHUANTONGDEYUANYIN,DEQUEFAXIANGUO“YUDAI”YILEIDEGEDAI,RUQIANSHUWANGJIANMUZHONGSUOCHU[30],DANTUFANBINGWUJIANGYUZUOWEIZHENGUIWUPINSHIYONGDELISHI,SUOYISHIFOUYESHIYONGYUZUOWEIHEJINYINTONGDENGZHENGUIDEZHICAILAIZHIZUOGAOSHENHAIXUCUNYI,BUPAICHUSHIHANDISHIJIACHUZICHUANTONGHANWENHUAGUANNIANDEFUHUIZHICI。RUGUOLIANXIDAOSHANGSHUPAISHIBIAOMIANDUOCAIYONGHONG、LANBAOSHIHELVSONGSHIJIAYIXIANGQIANDEQINGKUANGFENXI,SHIFOUYOUKENENGSHIZHIZAIJINSHUCAILIAODEPAISHIZHISHANGJIASHIYIGEZHONGBAOSHIERYAN,ERBINGFEICHUNCUIYONGYU、BAOSHIDENGLAIZHICHENG“GAOSHEN”?HAIXUJINYIBUJIAYIBIANXI。ZHIYUWENXIANJIZAIZHONGDE“SESE”JIUJINGWEIHEZHONGBAOSHI,YEGEYOUZHENGYI,DANCONGKAOGUSHIWUCAILIAOGUANCHA,SHIYONGDEZUIDUODESHILVSONGSHI、HONGBAOSHIDENGZHONGLEI,QIZHONGYOUQIYILVSONGSHISHIYONGZUIWEIPINFAN,HUOXUYUZHIYOUGUAN。

       QIER,TUFAN“GAOSHEN”DESHIWUXINGTAI,YOUKENENGJUYOUBUTONGDEBIAOXIANFANGSHI。CONGWENXIANHEKAOGULIANGFANGMIANJIEHEQILAIKAOLV,TAJIKENENGYOURUTONGRIBENXUEZHESHANKOURUIFENGTUICEDESHUXIEZAIZHIZHIHUOZHIWUSHANGDEXINGTAI,LEISIYUJINTIANDE“WEIRENZHUANG”;TONGSHI,YEYOUKENENGCUNZAIZHEZHUIXIZAIFUSHIZHISHANG(“BEIQIAN”、“BOQIAN”)DEZHANGHUIYILEIDEXINGTAI,LEISIYUJINTIANDEJUNXIANBIAOSHI;HAIYOUKENENGCUNZAIZHERUTONGTANGRENFUSHIZHIDUYIYANG,ZHUIXIYUGEDAIZHISHANGDEBUTONGZHIDIZHICHENGDE“KUA”DAIDEXINGTAI。CONGMUQIANFAXIANDEKAOGUSHIWUZHENGJULAIKAN,ZHISHAOHOULIANGLEIXINGTAIHUOXUYIJINGCUNZAIYUTUFANSHIQIDECHUTUWUDANGZHONG。YINCI,WOMENBUBIWANQUANJUNIYUWENXIANJIZAI,PIANMIAN、JIANGHUADILAILIJIEHEBIDUITUFAN“GAOSHEN”ZHIZHI。LULI、LUQINGFUERWEIXIANSHENGCENGJINGTUICE:“TUFANGAOSHENZHIDUYINGSHIZAIQIJIGUANYUANSHOUYUBUTONGGUIGEDEJIN、YINDENGZHIDIDEHUANZHUANGSHIWUWEISHENFENBIAOZHIDECHUANTONGZUOFADEJICHUSHANG,DUITANGCHAOGUANYUANDEFUSHIZHIDUHEGAOSHENZHIDUJINXINGJIEJIANMOFANGERCHENG”[31]。ZHEIGEKANFAYUKAOGUFAXIANDEQINGKUANGYOUXIANGDANGDEWENHEDU。DANGRAN,WOMENYEBUBIJIANGZHEILEIGEZHONGZHIDIDEBIAOSHIWUXIANDINGZAI“HUANZHUANGSHIWU”ZHEIGEFANWEINEI,TADEXINGTAIKENENGYINGDANGJUYOUDUOYANGXINGTEDIAN。

尚品棋牌       QISAN,TUFAN“GAOSHENZHIZHI”ZUOWEITUFANWANGCHAOQUBIESHEHUIDENGJICHAYIDEYIZHONGZHIDU,KANLAIDEQUEZAITUFANSHIXINGBINGBANFAGUO,SUIRANZAIRUOGANJUTIDESHISHIXIJIESHANGWOMENJINTIANYIJINGBUDEERZHI,DANQIDATISHANGYIBUTONGZHIDIDEGUIZHONGJINSHUHEBAOSHILAIBIAOSHISHEHUIBUTONGDENGJIDEJIBENTEZHENG,HENKENENGSHIKEGUANCUNZAIDESHISHI,TONGGUOTUFANMUZANGZHONGCHUTUDEGELEIPAISHI,HUOXUKEYICONGYIGECEMIANFANYINGCHUZHEIZHONGZHIDUDELISHIYIHEN。

       QISI,TUFANDE“GAOSHEN”ZHEIZHONGZHIDUHENMINGXIANSHOUTANGDAIGUANFUZHIDUDEYINGXIANGZUIWEIZHIJIE。SUIRANTANGDAIGUANFUZHIDUZAIQIXINGCHENGHEFAZHANDEGUOCHENGDANGZHONGXISHOULEDALIANGDAOLAIZIZHONGYAHEBEIFANG“HUFU”TEDIANDEYINSU(RUCAINA“XIEXIEDAI”、SHIYONGJIN、YINDENGGUIZHONGJINSHUQIZHIZUOBIAOSHIXITONGDENG),DANSHIJIANGYIGUANGEDAIZUOWEIYIZHONGCHENGTIXIDE、ZHIDUHUADEFUSELIZHIBANFASHISHI,ZESHITANGWANGCHAOZAIRONGHELEZIBEICHAOYILAIRUOGANBEIFANGMINZUFUSHIYUZHIDUYINSUDEJICHUSHANGCAIZUIZHONGCHENGXINGDE,ZHEIZAITANGDAIDIANLIZHONGYOUSHIFENQINGCHUDEJIZAI,ZAIKAOGUTUXIANGSHANGYEYILIUXIALAIDALIANGYIHEN[32]。YINCI,TUFAN“GAOSHENZHIZHI”ZUIWEIZHIJIEDELAIYUAN,YINGDANGSHITANGCHAOGUANFUZHIDU,DANGRANYEKELIJIEWEIJIANJIEDILAIYUANYUQITABEIFANGMINZU。

注释:

尚品棋牌[1] [SONG]WANGPUZHUAN:《TANGHUIYAO》SHANG,JUANLIU“HEFANGONGZHU”TIAOZAI,SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIGUJICHUBANSHE,2006NIANBAN,DI86YE。

尚品棋牌[2] CHENNAN:《TUFANGAOSHENZHIDU》,ZAIYU《ZANGSHICONGKAO》,BEIJING:MINZUCHUBANSHE,1998NIAN。LINGUANQUNYERENWEI:“(TUFAN)YOUFANGTANGCHAODEGAOSHENZHI,DINGLIWEIJIEZHIDU”,CANJIANSHIZHU《TANGDAITUFANSHIYANJIU》,DI526YE,TAIBEI:LIANJINGCHUBANSHIYEGONGSI,2011NIAN。

[3] [RI]SHANKOURUIFENG:《TUFAN—CHUANCHENGとZHIDUからJIANのXINGGE》,《LISHIJIAOYU》DI15QIDI9、10HAO,DI45YE,1967NIAN。CITIAOZILIAOXIZHUANYINZILINGUANQUNZHU:《TANGDAITUFANSHIYANJIU》,DI526YE,TAIBEI:LIANJINGCHUBANSHIYEGONGSI,2011NIAN。

尚品棋牌[4] [TANG]DUYOU:《TONGDIAN》JUANDI190《BIANFANG》LIU“TUFAN”TIAOZAI,BEIJING:ZHONGHUASHUJUXIAODIANBEN,1988NIANBAN,DI5171YE。

尚品棋牌[5] [SONG]OUYANGXIU、SONGQIZHUAN:《XINTANGSHU》JUANERBAIYISHILIUSHANG,“TUFANSHANG”,BEIJING:ZHONGHUASHUJUBIAODIANBEN,DI6072YE。

[6] [SONG]WANGQINRUO、YANGYIBIANZUAN:《CEFUYUANGUI》JUANJIULIUYI“WAICHENBU·TUFENGSAN”,BEIJING:ZHONGHUASHUJUYINGYINBEN,DI11307YE。

[7] [SONG]WANGQINRUO、YANGYIBIANZUAN:《CEFUYUANGUI》JUANJIULIUYI“WAICHENBU·TUFENGSAN”,BEIJING:ZHONGHUASHUJUYINGYINBEN,DI11307YE。

[8] [SONG]WANGQINRUO、YANGYIBIANZUAN:《《CEFUYUANGUI》JUANJIUBAQI“WAICHENBU·ZHENGTAOLIU”,BEIJING:ZHONGHUASHUJUYINGYINBEN,DI11589YE。

尚品棋牌[9] WANGYAO、CHENJIAN:《DUNHUANGBENTUFANLISHIWENSHU》DI164YE,BEIJING:MINZUCHUBANSHE,1992NIAN。

尚品棋牌[10] CANJIANCHENNAN:《TUFANGAOSHENZHIDU》,ZAIYU《ZANGSHICONGKAO》,BEIJING:MINZUCHUBANSHE,1998NIAN。

[11] BAWO·ZULACHENWAZHU、HUANGHAO、ZHOURUNNIANYIZHU:《XIANZHEXIYAN—TUFANSHIYIZHU》,DI35—36YE,BEIJING:ZHONGYANGMINZUDAXUECHUBANSHE,2010NIAN。

尚品棋牌[12] ZHAOXINYU:《TUFANGAOSHENZHIDUDELIANGGEWENTI》,《XIZANGYANJIU》2002NIANDI1QI。

尚品棋牌[13] XUXINGUO:《XICHUIZHIDIYUDONGXIFANGWENMING》,TUBANJIU:2,BEIJING:YANSHANCHUBANSHE,2006NIAN。

尚品棋牌[14] XUXINGUO:《XICHUIZHIDIYUDONGXIFANGWENMING》,TUBANJIU:1,BEIJING:YANSHANCHUBANSHE,2006NIAN;BEIJINGDAXUEKAOGUWENBOXUEYUAN、QINGHAISHENGWENWUKAOGUYANJIUSUOBIANZHU:《DOULANTUFANMU》,FULUWU,BEIJING:KEXUECHUBANSHE,2005NIAN。

尚品棋牌[15]BEIJINGDAXUEKAOGUWENBOXUEYUAN、QINGHAISHENGWENWUKAOGUYANJIUSUOBIANZHU:《DOULANTUFANMU》,TUSIER:4,BEIJING:KEXUECHUBANSHE,2005NIAN。

[16] BEIJINGDAXUEKAOGUWENBOXUEYUAN、QINGHAISHENGWENWUKAOGUYANJIUSUOBIANZHU:《DOULANTUFANMU》,FULUWU“DIAOCHAJILU”SUOLUTUPIAN“DOULANXIANGONGANJUSHOUJIAODEBUFENWENWU”ZHONGDELIANGJIANJINSHIJIAN,DI167YE,BEIJING:KEXUECHUBANSHE,2005NIAN。

尚品棋牌[17] HUOWEI:《TUFANXITONGJINYINQIYANJIU》,《KAOGUXUEBAO》2009NIANDI1QI。

[18] [SONG]WANGPUZHUAN:《TANGHUIYAO》JUANSANSHIYI“YUFUSHANG”,SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIGUJICHUBANSHE,2006NIANBAN,DI664—665YE。

尚品棋牌[19] [SONG]SHENKUOZHU:《MENGXIBITAN》JUANYI

[20] YOUGUANDIAOCHAZILIAOCANJIAN:HUOWEI:《SHIXIXIZANGDONGBUXINFAXIANDELIANGCHUZAOQISHIKEZAOXIANG》,《DUNHUANGYANJIU》2003NIANDI5QI;XIONGWENBIN:《TANGFANGUDAOSHANGTUFANSHIQIDEDARIRULAIZAOXIANG》,《DISANJIEHANZANGFOJIAOMEISHUGUOJIXUESHUYANTAOHUILUNWENJI》,2006NIAN。

尚品棋牌[21] YOUGUANZHEIPITUFANGUANBANHUADEZILIAOKECANJIAN:

[22] SUFANGSHUZHUBIAN、HUOWEIZHUAN:《JINYAOFENGHUA·CHINIQINGCONG—MENGDIEXUANZANGZHONGGUOGUDAIJINSHI·Ⅱ》,DI204—207YE,XIANGGANG:XIANGGANGZHONGWENDAXUECHUBANSHE,2013NIAN。

尚品棋牌[23] SUFANGSHUZHUBIAN、HUOWEIZHUAN:《JINYAOFENGHUA·CHINIQINGCONG—MENGDIEXUANZANGZHONGGUOGUDAIJINSHI·Ⅱ》,DI212—215YE,XIANGGANG:XIANGGANGZHONGWENDAXUECHUBANSHE,2013NIAN。

[24] SUFANGSHUZHUBIAN、HUOWEIZHUAN:《JINYAOFENGHUA·CHINIQINGCONG—MENGDIEXUANZANGZHONGGUOGUDAIJINSHI·Ⅱ》,DI218—221YE,XIANGGANG:XIANGGANGZHONGWENDAXUECHUBANSHE,2013NIAN。

[25] SUFANGSHUZHUBIAN、HUOWEIZHUAN:《JINYAOFENGHUA·CHINIQINGCONG—MENGDIEXUANZANGZHONGGUOGUDAIJINSHI·Ⅱ》,DI190—193YE,XIANGGANG:XIANGGANGZHONGWENDAXUECHUBANSHE,2013NIAN。

[26] HUOWEI:《MENGDIEXUANZANGTUFANJINYINQIGAISHU》,KANYUSUFANGSHUZHUBIAN、HUOWEIZHUAN:《JINYAOFENGHUA·CHINIQINGCONG—MENGDIEXUANZANGZHONGGUOGUDAIJINSHI·Ⅱ》,DI2—13YE,XIANGGANG:XIANGGANGZHONGWENDAXUECHUBANSHE,2013NIAN。

尚品棋牌[27] LINMEICUN:《ZHENSHIRUHUAKAO》,SHOURUQILUNWENJI:《GUDAOXIFENG—KAOGUXINFAXIANSUOJIANZHONGXIWENHUAJIAOLIU》,DI210—230YE,BEIJING:SANLIANSHUDIAN,2000NIAN。

[28] TULUFANCHUTUWENSHU《TANGCANSHUDU》JIZAI:“……///XIANXIN,JIYUZUOYINYAODAI……/……///QIEDAITOU(ZHEN)SHIYAODAI,DAI///……”。CITIAOCAILIAOXIZHUANYINZIRAOZONGYI:《SHUOZHENSHI—TULUFANWENSHUZHAJI》,SHOURUQILUNWENJI:《RAOZONGYISHIXUELUNZHUXUAN》,SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIGUJICHUBANSHE,1993NIAN,DI384YE。

尚品棋牌[29] LINMEICUN:《ZHENSHIRUHUAKAO》,SHOURUQILUNWENJI:《GUDAOXIFENG—KAOGUXINFAXIANSUOJIANZHONGXIWENHUAJIAOLIU》,DI210—230YE,BEIJING:SANLIANSHUDIAN,2000NIAN。

尚品棋牌[30] FENGHANJI:《WANGJIANMUNEICHUTU“DADAI”KAO》,《KAOGU》1959NIANDI8QI。

尚品棋牌[31] LULI、LUQINGFU:《GUANYUTUFANGAOSHENZHIDUDEJIGEWENTI》,《MINZUYANJIU》2006NIANDI3QI。

尚品棋牌[32] MADONG:《TANGDAIFUSHIZHUANTIYANJIU——YIHUHANFUSHIWENHUAJIAORONGWEIZHONGXIN》,SHANXISHIFANDAXUEBOSHIXUEWEILUNWEN,2006NIAN。