微信图片_20200212111852.jpg摄影:觉果

       内容摘要:青藏高原东南部与川滇交接处自称“培米”的藏族群体远古氏族问题一度被学界讨论,学者们提出了牦牛种说、白狼羌说、党项羌说和藏族说等不同的观点;然而,该群体本身也有自古流传下来的氏族叙述传统,有着自我的族群认知。本文将汉藏史料与本土历史文化信息结合起来,在他者和自我的双重视角下,对“培米”藏族远古氏族属性进行考证。

尚品棋牌       WOGUOSHIGEDUOMINZUGUOJIA,GEMINZUQUNTIFAZHANLISHISHIZHENGGEZHONGGUOFAZHANLISHIDEZUCHENGBUFEN,XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOU,GEMINZULISHIWENHUAYANJIUYEBEISHIWEIWOGUOMINZUGONGZUODEZHONGYAONEIRONG。SHENGHUOZAIWOGUOXINANDIQUQINGZANGGAOYUANHECHUANDIANPINGYUANJIAOJIECHU,ZICHENG“PEIMI”HUO“ZHONGMI”DEZANGZUQUNTI,CHENGWEIGUONEIXUEZHEMENDUONIANYANJIUDEDUIXIANG。GAIQUNTIYUWOGUODANYIMINZUPUMIZUZAILISHIHEYUYANWENHUADENGFANGMIANYOUMIQIEGUANXI,WEICI,FEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGCENGTICHU“SICHUANMULIDIQUDE‘ZANGZU’HEYUNNANNINGLANGYIDAIDEPUMIZUYUANBENSHIYIZU,YUYANYUZANGYUBUTONG,JIEJINQIANGYU、JIARONGYU” DEGUANDIAN。TONGYANG,QITAXUEZHEYEYIHANWENZILIAOTICHULEGEZHONGGUANDIAN。BUSHAOXUEZHEBASHUYUZANGZUDE“PEIMI”QUNTISHIZUOPUMIZUDEYIBUFEN,JIANGQICHUANTONGWENHUAYEJIESHIWEIFEIZANGZUDEWENHUAFANCHOU。RANER,DANGDIZANGZUZERENWEI,TAMENDEYUYANGENQITAZANGQUFANGYANSUIYOUCHAYI,QIZUYUANSHANGSHUYUZANGZUYUANGUSHIZU“ZUICHUNZHEN”DEHOUYI。YOUYUCANKAOZILIAOHEYANJIUFANGFASHANGDEDANYIXING,GAIQUNTILISHIWENHUASHANGDEHENDUOWENTISHANGDAIJINYIBUYANJIU。ZAICIBIZHEJIANGHANZANGSHILIAOYUBENTULISHIWENHUAXINXIJIEHEQILAI,ZAITAZHEHEZIWODESHUANGZHONGSHIJIAOXIA,TANTAOQINGZANGGAOYUANDONGYAN“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUANGUSHIZUWENTI。

       一、他者视角下的历史文献

       ZICHENG“PEIMI”DEZANGZURENKOUYUEYOUWUWANZHIDUO,ZHUYAOFENBUZAIMULIZANGZUZIZHIXIAN、YANYUANXIANHEJIULONGXIAN。TAMENDEYUYANWENHUAGENYUNNANSHENGJINGNEIDEPUMIZUJIWEIXIANGSI。PUMIZUZAI1960NIANBEISHIZUOYIGEDANYIMINZU,BINGYI“MINGCONGZHUREN”DEYUANZEANQUNTIZICHENG“PUMI”HUO“PEIMI”ZHIYINQUMING。PUMIZURENKOUYOUSIWANZHIYU,ZHUYAOFENBUZAIYUNNANSHENGLANPINGXIANHENINGLANGXIANDENGYUMULIZANGZUZIZHIXIANHEYANYUANXIANXIANGLINDEDIFANG。LIANGDI“PUMI”HUO“PEIMI”RENSUISHUBUTONGMINZU,QUERENWEISHUYUTONGYIGEYUANGUSHIZU。YICIWEIYOU,ZAIHANWENXIANGGUANYANJIUZHONG,XUEZHEMENJIANGERZHESHIWEITONGYIGEWENHUAZUQUNJINXINGYANJIU。ZAICI,BIZHEJIANGCONGSHILIAOYANJIUZONGSHUDUI“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUANGUSHIZUSHUXINGJINXINGYANJIU。

       ZAIJIEFANGQIANDEZHUDUOHANWENSHILIAOZHONG,BAOKUO“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUQUNTIZAINEIDEQINGZANGGAOYUANZHUQUNTIBEITONGCHENGWEI “XIFAN”HUO“XIFAN(MINGCHAOHOU)”。GUANYU“XIFAN”DEYUANGUSHIZUWENTI,HANWENSHILIAOYANJIUZHEJINYIBUJIANGQIZHUISUWEIGU“XIQIANG”DEFANCHOU。GU“XIQIANG”YOUYOUHENDUOFENZHI,XIANGGUANYANJIUZHEMENDEGUANDIANDAZHIKEYIGAIKUOWEI“MAONIUQIANG”SHUO、“BAILANGQIANG”SHUO、“DANGXIANGQIANG”SHUOHE“ZANGZU”SHUODESIDABUTONGGUANDIANRUXIA:

尚品棋牌       1.“MAONIUQIANG”SHUO

       FANGGUOYUXIANSHENGZAIQI《NAXIZUDEYUANYUAN、QIANXIHEFENBU》YIWENZHONG, YI《HOUHANSHU·XIQIANGCHUAN》HE《HOUHANSHU· NANMANXINANYILIECHUAN》ZHONGDEYOUGUANJIZAI,JI《BAILANGGE》DEYUYANJIBENSHANGYUJINDAINAXIYUXIANGTONGHUOXIANGJINWEIYOU,RENWEI“CONGYUYANZUSHUGUANXISHANGKAN, NAXIZUDEXIANMIN ( ZUODIMAONIUZHONGZHIBAILANGQIANG),SHICONGDADUHEYIBEIQIANXIERNAN。”  BINGHOULAIHAITICHUXIZE(MAONIUYI)WEIXIFANREN(JINCHENGZANGZUHEPUMI)DEXIANMIN。BULUNZUODIXIANMINSHIJINDAIDENAXIZUHAISHIZANGZUHEPUMIZU, FANGXIANSHENGRENWEIZUODIBAILANGYIWEIMAONIUZHONGREN。DUICI,MENGMOHEGELEDENGXUEZHEYETICHULELEISIDEGUANDIAN。

       2.“BAILANGQIANG”SHUO

       RENNAIQIANGXIANSHENGRENWEIJINPUMIHUOPEIMIDEZUXIANWEIZUODIDE“BAILANGPANMU”,ERQIEGENKANGQUDEGUDAIMINZUTONGSHUGUQIANGREN。CHENZONGXIANGHEDENGWENFENGXIANSHENGYERENWEI,“PUMIJIUSHI‘BAILANG、PANMU﹑TANGZOUDENGBAIYUGUO'DE‘PANMU'” 。CIWAI,YANRUXIANDENGXUEZHEYEJINGYANJIURENWEI“XIFAN”DEZUXIANKEYIZHUISUDAODONGHANDE“BAILANGYI”。

       3.“DANGXIANGQIANG”SHUO

       CIGUANDIANZHUYAOYIJU《SUISHU》、《BEISHI》、《JIUTANGSHU》HE《XINTANGSHU》DENGSHILIAODEJIZAI。YOUZHONGXIANSHENGYICIRENWEI“LIAOSONGSHIQI, ZIHUANGHESHANGYOULIANGANWANGNAN, YANDADUHENANLIUDUANYIXIDIDAI, PUMIZUZUOWEI‘XIFAN’ZHONGDEYIBUFEN, YUYIBUFENQIANGREN、TUFANRENXIANGZAJU。ZHIDAOMINGCHAOSHIQI, XIFANDEZHEIZHONGFENBUZHUANGKUANGRENGRANJIBENSHANGGUJINYIZHI。CHUYUNNANXIJIAOWAIDENEIBUFENXIFANSHI13SHIJIZHONGYESUIMENGGUBINGNANXIADEERWAI,QITABUFENZEWEIZILIAOSONGYILAIBIANJUYUYUANDI。”

       4.ZANGZUSHUODEGUANDIAN

       SICHUANSHENGMINZUZHIDIAOCHAZUZAI《 SICHUANSHENG“ XIFAN” SHIBIEDIAOCHAXIAOJIE》ZHONG,JINGDIAOCHARENWEIMULI“XIFAN(‘PEIMI’ZANGZU)”YUZHENGGEZANGMINZUZAILISHI、WENHUA、ZONGJIAOXINYANG、FENGSUXIGUANZHUFANGMIANLEITONG,SHIMIBUKEFENDETONGYIZUYUAN。LINGWAI,CHICIGUANDIANDECHULVZHENYUWAI,HAIYOULINHUIXIANG。LINXIANSHENGRENWEI“‘XIFAN’ZHUXIKANGSHENGJISICHUANXIBUNANBUHEYUNNANXIBEIBU, HUOWEISHUQIANGZHIYISHU, TONGCHANGWEISHUZANGZU。CIERSHUOYIWUSHENCHONGTU, YINQIANGYUZANGSHIYOUMIQIEDEGUANXI,BINGFEIBINGBUXIANGTONGZHILIANGMINZU,QIE‘XIFAN’JIEJULIANGZHEZHIJIANJILEIYUQIANGYILEIYUZANG,KESHIWEILIANGZHEDEHUNHEYE。”

       GENJUHANWENSHILIAOZHONGYISHANGSILEIBUTONGDEGUANDIAN,“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUYIJIQITAZANGQUDONG、BEIBUYUZHONGYUANWENHUAJIAOJIEDIDAIDEZANGZUDENGZANGXIMINZUDOUBAOKUOZAI“XIFAN”FANCHOU,YINCI,JIN“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUDENGXINANDIQUDE“XIFAN”RENGENXIBEIDIQUDE“XIFAN”REN,YIJIZAIHEHUANGDIQUCENGBEICHENGWEI“JIAXIFAN”DEYIHANHUADEZANGZUJIEYOULISHIGUANXI。YANJIU“JIAXIFAN”DEXUEZHEHAIRENWEI“QI(JIAXIFAN)ZUYUANZHUYAOYOULIANGBUFEN:YIBUWEIGUSILUOQINGTANGTUFANZHIHOUYI, LINGYIBUWEIMINGZHONGQISHOUXIHAIMENGGUYAZHIHEGONGJICONGHUANHUCAOYUANZHUANRUHUANGSHUILINGYUDEZANGZUZHIHOUYI。”RANER,SHANGSHUYANJIUJIHUDOUMEIGUJI“PEIMI”ZANGZUYIJIZANGMINZUZISHENDEYUANGUZUXIANSHIZURENTONGFANGMIANDELISHIJIZAI。GENJU《BEISHI·DANGXIANGCHUAN》、《SUISHU》HE《LIANGTANGSHU》JIZAI,GUHANWENSHILIAOZHONGDEMAONIU、DANGXIANG、BAILANGDENGQUNTIGU“QIANG”REN,BUSHIBICIXIANGDUIDEGAINIAN,ERSHIYOUZHONGDIEGUANXIDEGUBUZUCHENGWEI,ERQIECONG“DANGCHANG、BAILANG,JIEZICHENGMIHOUZHONG”DENGLISHIJIZAISHANGKAN,ZHEIXIEQUNTIGENJINZANGZUYIYANGJIEYOUMIHOUZHONGYANBIANDELISHIRENTONG。YOUGUANQIANGRENLISHI,YOUXUEZHEGENJUJIAGUWENDETEZHENGFENXIDAO,“YOUSHIKEKAODE,ZUIZAOJIANYUYINSHANGSHIDEJIAGUWENBUCI。…… JUJIAGUWENJIZAI,YINSHANGSHIDEQIANGYOUJIAO‘QIANGFANG’,YOULIANGDABULUO,YISHI‘BEIQIANG’,YISHI‘MA(DI)QIANG’。” DUICI,YOUZANGZUXUEZHETUIDUANCHUHANWENSHILIAOZHONGDE“QIANG”GENZANGWEN“བྱང་ཐང་།(QIANGTANG)”ZHONGDE“བྱང(ZHANGA)”YOUGUANXI。CONGSHILIAOKEZHI,SUIZHEGU“QIANG”RENHUODONGFANWEIDEBUDUANKUODA,QIZHONGYIBUFENHAIRONGRUDAOZHONGYUANGEZUQUNZHONG,YECHENGWEIHANZUDENGQITAMINZUDEXIANMIN。

       TONGSHI,TIZHIRENLEIXUEHEYICHUANXUEDENGXUEKELINGYUDEXINYANJIUYEDUIPUMIZUHEZANGZUDETONGYUANWENTIJIYULEKEXUEYIJU。PIRU,LAIJIANGHUADENGXUEZHECONGYICHUANXUEJIAODUDUIWOGUOZHUDUOMINZUJINXINGYANJIUHOU,CONGKEXUEZHENGSHIFANGFAKAOZHENGLEZHUXIFANQUNTIZHIJIANDETONGYUANGUANXI。LINGWAI,WENYOUFENGDENGYANJIUZHE,YETONGGUOZHANGZHIWENDEYANJIUFANGFADECHULEZANGZUYUHANWENSHILIAOZHONGJIWEIDIQIANGDEHOUYI(MENBAZU、PUMIZU、QIANGZUDENG)YOUQINMIDEGUANXI,ERQIEPUMIZUDEZHANGZHIWENHEBEIDIAOCHADELASAZANGRENDEZHANGZHIWENYANJIUSHUJUZUIWEIJIEJINDEJIELUN。

尚品棋牌       RANER,SHANGSHUZUYUANCHENGWEIJIEFEISHIDUIXIANGQUNTIDEZICHENG,YEWUFATUIDUANGAIQUNTIZIWOLISHISHIJIAOXIADEYUANGUSHIZU。YINCI,BIZHEGENGQINGXIANGYUCONGGUANGKUODE“WENHUASHI”HE“SHEHUISHI”DEMAILUOZHONGLIJIE“PEIMI”ZANGZUZAIFAZHANYURENTONGZHONGCHUXIANDEFUZASHENKEDEWENHUAXIANXIANG,ZHUZHONGYANJIUGAIQUNTIZICHENGHEKOUSHUDENGQUNTIZISHENDELISHIXINXI。

       二、 自我视角下的族群认知

       1.QUNTICHENGWEI

       ZUOWEIDULIMINZUDEPUMIZUHE“PEIMI”ZANGZUTONGSHUZICHENGWEI“PEIMI”、“PAIMIYI”、“ZHONGMI”HUO“PUMI”ZHIYINDEQUNTI。ZAIZHEILIANGGEQUNLIDEYUYANLI,“PEI”、“PAI”、“ZHONG”HUO“PU”YINYOU“BAISE”ZHIYI,ER“MI”ZEZHI“REN”,LIANQILAIKESHIWEI“BAIREN”。RANERBIZHEJINGDIAOCHAFAXIAN,“PEIMI”ZANGZULAORENHEBUSHAOXUEZHERENWEI,“‘PEIMI’、‘PAIMIYI’HUO‘PUMI’DECHENGWEI,JUNSHIZANGWEN‘བོད་མི(bod miZANGREN) ’DEFANGYANDUYIN;ZHIYU‘ZHONGMI’,SHIPUMIZUCHENGWEIDANYIMINZUHOUYOULE‘BAISE’DEXINJIESHIERCHUXIANDEXINCHENGWEI。”JIBIANRUCI,“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUYANZHONG“BAISE”WEI“PEI”HUO“ZHONG”DEYINYUJINSANDAZANGYUFANGYANHEWENZIZHONG“དཀར(YIN‘GA’,ZHIBAISE)”ZHIJIANCUNZAIJUDACHAJU。RANER,YEBUNENGYIJIANDANDEYUYINHENGXIANGDUIYINGERDUANDING“PEIMI”ZANGZUSHIBEICUOHUAWEIZANGZU。

       YUYANSHIMINZUQUNTIDEZHUYAOWENHUANEIRONGZHIYI,GEMINZUYUYANHUIFASHENGBUDUANDEBIANHUA,TONGYIGEMINZUNEIBUYEHUIYINBUTONGDEDILIQUYUERXINGCHENGBUTONGFANGYAN。ZAIYOUGUANFAZANGBANDUNHUANGWENXIANDEYANJIUZHONGFAXIAN,ZAIGUZANGYULIYOUYU“PEI”、“PAI”、“PU”HUO“ZHONG”YINYIXIANGTONGDECI。FAGUOZHUMINGDEZANGXUEJIASHITAIANZAI《HANZANGZOULANGGUBUZU》YOUGUANZANGZU“DONGSHI”YANJIUZHONG,TIDAOLEYUANJUZAIQINGZANGGAOYUANBEIBUQINGHAIDENGDIDEZANGZU“DONGSHI”QUNTIYUYANZHONGYOUBAISEWEI“ཕྲོམ(phrom)”DEJIZAI。GENJUFAGUOGUOLITUSHUGUANSUOZANGBOXIHEDUNHUANGZANGWENXIEBENDI1285HAODI55XINGZHONGDE“ཐང་བ་གཡུ་ཐང་སྙུན་ཀྱང་བཤོས། གནའ་བས་ད་བཟང། ཕྲོམ་བས་ལོད་དཀར།”HEDI1039HAOXIEBENDI26XINGDE“གནའ་བས་འདའ་བཟང། ཕྲོམ་བས་ལོ་ལོ་དཀར། གནའ་དེ་ལྟར་ཕན་ཏེ་བསོ་དེ།”DENGXIANGGUANJIZAI,KEYIDUANDINGGUZANGWENZHONGDE“phrom”DEYISIYU“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUYANHEJIARONGYUYIYANG,SHI“BAISEDE”,HUO“MOUZHONGBAI”,HUO“MOUZHONGBAISEDEDONGXI”。

尚品棋牌       CHUPUMIYUHE“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUYANZHONGDE“ZHONG”YINGENDUNHUANGWENXIANZHONGDEZANGWEN“ཕྲོམ”ZINENGGOUDUIYINGZHIWAI,QIYU“PEI”、“PAI”HUO“PU”ZHIYINYENENGDUIYING。ZANGQUGEDIYUYANYINDIYUERYOUFAYINCHAYI,GEDIQUKOUYUFAYINHEZANGWENWENZISHUXIEZHIJIANYECUNZAIYIDINGDECHAYI。CONGZANGWENGOUCIJIEGOUSHANGFENXI,ZANGYUGEFANGYANZHONGYOUBUFENYINCHAIFENFAYINERFASHENGTUOLUO、BIHUA、BIANDIAODENGXIANXIANG。ZAI“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUYANZHONG,YECHUXIANLECILEIXIANXIANG。BIRU,ZANGWEN“འབྲུག(LONG)”DUWEIའབའ་རུག(bʐu55);“སྦྲུལ(SHE)”WEIསྦ་རུལ(bɐ35 re53);“སྤྲེའུ(HOUZI)”DUZUO“pʐi53ɣu53”,DENGDENG。YOUCIKEYITUILI,XIANYIZHONGWENXIEWEI“PEI”、“PU”、“ZHONG”DE“PEIMI”ZANGYU“phʐã”YIN,YESHIWEIZANGWEN“ཕྲོམ(phrom)”DEBUTONGBIANYIN。QIZHONG“PEI”、“PU”SHIZANGWEN“ཕྲོམ”ZISHANGXIAJIEGOUCHAIFENERXUNSUDUZUO“ཕ་རོམ(pha rom)”DEYIN,ER“ZHONG”YINZESHI“ཕྲོམ”ZIWEICHAIFENDEFAYIN。LINGWAI,ZAI“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUYANLI“REN”CHENGZUO“MI”HUO“MIYI”,GENJINSANDAZANGYUFANGYANHENJIEJIN,SHIGUZANGWENZHONGDE“མྱི”DECHAIFENXUNSUDUYIN。YINCI,DANCONGQUNTIZICHENGKAN,BUGUAN“PEIMI”SHI“བོད་མི(ZANGZU)”HAISHI“ཕྲོམ་མི།(BAIREN)”,DOUSHUZANGZUDEFANCHOU,BINGGENJUQUNTIYUYANTEZHENGSHANGKAN,“ཕྲོམ་མི།”SHISHUYUZANGZUYUANGU“DONG(ལྡོང)”SHIHOUYI。DANGRAN,JINCONGZUQUNCHENGWEIZHIYUYINBIANQIANZHONGZHENGMING“PEIMI”SHIZANGZUYUANGUSHIZUQUESHIYOUXIEDANBO,BIZHEJIEXIALAIJIANGCONGQUNTIZISHENDEKOUSHUSHIHECHUANTONGSHILIAOJIGAIQUNTIDAIDAIXIANGCHUANDEZUPUDENGXIANGGUANCAILIAOZHONGYANZHENGZHEIYIWENTI。

尚品棋牌       2. ZUPU

       “PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUMEIJIAMEIHUDOUYOUDAIDAIXIANGCHUANDE“ZHILUJING”HE“ZUPU”DENGKOUCHUANSHI。ZHEIXIEJITILISHIJIYIGENHANWENSHILIAOJIZAIDELISHIXINXIJIBENYIZHI,CHENSHULEYUANJUQINGHAIYIDAIDEYUANGUSHIZUZHIXIZHUJIANNANQIANERCHENGLETAMENDEHOUYI。ZUPUZAI“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUCHUANTONGJIEQINDENGSHEHUIJIAOWANGZHONGSHIWEIFEICHANGZHONGYAODENEIRONG,BEISHIWEIQUNTINEIBUZUIZHUYAODENIUDAI。RUJINDABUFENZANGRENJIATINGSUIYIJIANBUDAOSHIFENXIANGXIDEZUPU,DANZAI《HEITOUAIREN》DENGZANGWENGUDAISHILIAOZHONGQUEYOULEISIDEJIZAI,ERQIE《XIZANGWANGCHENJI》DENGZHUDUOZANGWENSHILIAOYETIDAOLETUFANWANGCHAOMIEWANGZHIQIAN,ZANBUWANGSHIDOUYOUBEISONGZUXIANSHIZUDEXISU。LINGWAI,HENDUOZANGQUCHUANTONGHUNQINGSHANGRENGYOULAORENSONGZANGEZIJIASHIZUXIDEYICHENG,CONGWENHUATEXINGSHANGKAN,ZHEIWUFEIYESHIYUANGUBEISONGZUPUXISUDEYIZHONGYANBIAN。JIUSHENGWUXUEYIYIERYAN,ZUPUZUOWEIYIZHONGXUETONGPUXI,SHIZUQUNZAISHENGWUZHONGZUHUAZHIHOUDEXINGCUN;CHANGSONGZUPUZHEIZHONGBIAOXIANXINGXINGWEIJIUSHIQIGONGTONGGUOWANGJINGYANDEZHUISUHEZAIXIAN,ERZUPUZUOWEIYIBUTONGWENBENXINGSHISUOCHENGXIANDELISHINEIHANQIAQIASHUOMING——ZUCHENGGAIQUNTIDEGETIYONGYOUXIANGSIHUOTONGZHIDEWENHUAJISHEHUITEZHENG。CHUCIZHIWAI,CHANGSONGXINGWEIYEBIAOXIANWEI“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUDUIZUQUNGONGTONGTIYUANYUANDEZHUIGENYUSUYUAN,SHIDUIZUQUNWENHUAJIYIDEYIZHONGHUANXINGYUJUANLIAN。

尚品棋牌       BUSHAOXUEZHEYEDUI“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUDEZUPUJINXINGGUOYANJIU,BAKOUCHUANXIALAIDEZUPUZHONGDELIANGJUHUASHIZUOPUMIZUHE“PEIMI”ZANGZUZAOQIZHONGYAOLISHIXINXI,BINGYIDIFANGFAYINJIANGQIJIWEI“JIWUBUZHIDONG,PUMIRANGONGZU”。ZHEILIANGJUYOUGEZHONGBUTONGCHANSHI,ZAI《GUONEIPUMIZUYANJIUHUIGUYUQIANZHAN》YIWENZHONG,PUMIZUZHANGZHEHUWENMINGXIANSHENGJIANGQIJIESHIWEI:“XUESHUIHUIJIZHISUO,PUMISIYUEZHIYI”。ERYUCIBUTONGDEJIESHIHAIYOU:“PUMIZUCHUANSHUOZUXIANDEFAXIANGDISHI‘JUEWUBUZHIDONG’QIDIWANGZAIGONGGALINGXIA,XUESHUIHUIJIZHISUO(LINGYOUZHUJIEDAO:LINGYISHUO,‘JUEWUBUZHIDONG’DEDIWANGZAIQINGHAIDAXUESHANXIADEJIANGHEZHIYUAN),YOUNEIERLIUCHUYITIAOQINGCHEDEHELIU,PUMIZUIZAODESIGEXIONGDIJIUSHIZAIXUESHUIHUILIUCHUFENDAOYANGBIAODE。” ,YIJIYANRUXIANJIESHIDE“XUESHUIRONGHUACHENGJIANGHEZHIYUANDEDIFANG,SHICHUANQUNFUNVDEFAYUANCHU。”DENGDENG。

       RANERBIZHEZAIMULIZANGZUZIZHIXIANDENGDI“PEIMI”ZANGZUCUNLUODIAOYANSHIFAXIAN,“HANGUI”HUO“HANJI”SHOUZANGDEYUANGUZUPUJINGSHUSUOJIZAIDENEIRONG,YUZHIQIANXUEZHEDUIKOUTOUZUPUDEJIESHICUNZAICHAYI。PUMIZUXUEZHEJIANG“HANGUI”SUOYONGDEJINGSHUCHENGWEI“HANGUIWEN”,BINGSHENGCHENG“HANGUIJIAOJINGDIANSHIYONGZANGWENSHUXIEDE,DANHANGUIYONGPUMIYUPINDU,SHIWENZIDEYIN、YIYUZANGWENYOUBIE,GUCHENGZHIWEIHANGUIWEN。” “HANGUI”SUOSHOUZANGDESHOUXIEJINGSHUDOUSHIZAIDANGDIZONGJIAOJISIHECHUANTONGSANGZANGZHONGBIXUNIANSONGDEJINGDIAN,“KECHENGZHIWEI‘PUMIZUDEBAIKEQUANSHU’。”ZAI“PEIMI”ZANGZUZHUDUOJINGSHUZHONG,YOUYIBENYIDANGDI“HANGUIWEN”SHUXIEDE《འདུར་གྱི་ལྡོང་གི་ཕ་རབ་དབུས་ཕྱོགས་བཞུགས་སོ།།(DONGSHIFUXIZUPU)》,SHENGCHENGSHIDANGDIDAIDAIXIANGCHUANDEYIGEWENSHIZUPU。KOUCHUANZUPURUOSHIZAISHENGYINBIAOJIDEYIYISHANGDUISUOZHIZHIWUJINXINGLEFANGYANBAOLIU,NEIMEZUPUJINGWENZESHIZUOWEISHUMIANYUTONGGUOCHAOXIEXINGSHIDUISUOZHIZHIWUJINXINGLEGUDING。ZHEIZHONGGUDINGXINGZAIJINGGUOZHANGSHIJIANDELISHIJIDIANZHIHOU,CHENGWEILESUZAOMINZURENTONGLINIANGUANJIANYIJU。

       CONGJINGSHUTIMUSHANGKEJIANGAIZUPUSHIZANGZUYUANGUDE“DONG”SHIYIZHIDEZUPU。GUANYU“DONG”SHIDESHILIAOJIZAIJIAODUO,RUYOU“(ZANGZU)FENCHENGSIBUZUJIDUN、DONG、SAI、MU”。《HANZANGSHIJI》YIJIYOU“ZANGZUSHIYUANYUMIHOUYULUOCHANV……NEISISHIZUWEI:DUN(སྟོང)、DONG(ལྡོང)、SAI(སེ)、MU(རྨུHUO དམུ),SISHIZUFANYANCHENGWEIZANGZUREN。”YIJI“DONG(ལྡོང)SHIZUDERENDUOCHUWANGZHE”DENG。CHENGSHUYUJIUSHIJIZUOYOUDEGUBENJIAOWENXIAN《HEITOUAIRENGUSHI》JIZAI:“ZAIYUANGUSHIQI,ZAINEIYUANSHIDELAYUGONGTANGDIFANG……TIANSHENHOUYIFENSISHIZU,JIMAERXIANGXIONGZU(སྨར་ཞང་ཞུང),DUNSUPIZU(སྟོང་སུམ་པ),DONGMUNIEZU(ལྡོང་མི་ཉག),SAIACHAIZU(སེ་འ་ཞ),QIZHONG,MAERYUXIANGXIONGWEIYIZU,DONGYUMUNIEWEIYIZU,DUNYUSUPIWEIYIZU,SAIYUACHAIWEIYIZU,SISHIZUJIAJIUSHIGUOZUCHENGWUDASHIZU。”GENJU《ZANGZUJIANSHI》DENGSHILIAO,“DONG”SHIJIABUDONG(ཨ་སྤོ་ལྡོང)SHIZUZHONGYOUBAIDONG、HEIDONG、HUANGDONG、ZIDONG、HONGDONGDENGDUOZHONG。“DONGSHIZUQICHUFENHUAWEILIUZU,HOULAIQIZHONGYOUFENHUACHENGLIUZU,ZAIHOULAIFENHUACHENGSHIBADAAQIAN(ང་ཆེན་བཅོ་བརྒྱད)、SHIBADASHIZU(རུས་ཆེན་བཅོ་བརྒྱད)HUOSHIBAXIAOSHIZU(ཤུལ་ཆུང་བཅོ་བརྒྱད),JIASHANGZHIXIQIANGSHIRENTONGCHENGWEIMUQIANGSISHI。”DENGJIZAI。“DONG”SHIZANGZUGULAOXINGSHIZHONGJUZHUJIAOWEIFENSANQUNTI。DUICI,SHITAIANCONGDIYUCENGMIANJIANGDONGSHISHIBADAXINGSHIFENBUQUYUKAODINGWEIHUANGHESHANGYOUDIQUDEGUOLUORENDIQU、HUOERRENDIQU、MINZHOU、TAOZHOU、JIARONG,BINGYITANGDONGJIEBU(ཐང་སྟོང་རྒྱལ་པོ།)WEILISHUOMINGLEDONGSHIRENSHUZHIDUO,FENSANJUZHUYUZHENGGEZANGQUDETEDIAN。

尚品棋牌       “PEIMI”ZANGZUCHUANTONGXIEBEN《DONGSHIFUXIZUPU》YISHUZHONG,YOU“ཆེ་བ་སྤོས་ཆུ་ལྡོང་།(DABUQUDONG)”YIJU,YU“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUKOUSHUSHIZHONGDE“JIWUBUZHIDONG”HUO“JUEWUBUZHIDONG”DEDUYINJIWEIXIANGSI。JU“HANGUI”JIESHI,CIJUSHIWEI“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUDEKOUCHUANJIAPUZHONGDEDIYIJU,SHIZHIFANRENYUANGUSIDAXINGSHIHUOLIUDASHIZUZHI“DONGSHI”XITONG,YOUCIRENWEITAMENSHIZANGZU“DONG”SHIZHI“BUQUDONG(སྤོས་ཆུ་ལྡོང་།)”DEHOUYI。GUANYU“BUQUDONG”SHIZU,QITAZANGWENSHILIAOZHONGYEYOUMINGJI,RU《LANGSHIJIAZU》ZHONGJIYOU:“……ANIMUSICHIDAOQUQINIANSAXIAMIERDESANZI:ZHANGZIBUQUDONG、CIZISAIKONGZHA、SANZIAJIAZHI,……”BING“ZHANGZIBUQUDONG,DONGZEYOUSHIBAAQIAN、SHIBADASHIZU、MUBODONGDELIUDA、LIUCENG。”DENG。ZHIYU“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUKOUCHUANDE“PUMIRANGONGZU”YIJU,BIZHESHANGWEIZHAODAOWENZIJIZAI。DUICI,TAMENYIDANGDIYUYANJIESHIWEI:“PEIMI”、“PUMI”HUO“CHONGMI”SHIZUQUNZICHENG;“RAN”WEISI;“GONG”WEISHANHUOSHANMAI;“ZU”WEIZINVZHIYI。LIANQILAIYIWEI“CONGYUANGUSIDASHANMAIFENLICHULAIDEPEIMI(HUOPUMI)HOUYI。”YINCI,CONG“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUDEZIWOCHENGWEIYUTIAOFENLVXIDESHILIAODUIYINGZHONG,KEJIANERZHEDEZUXIANDOUSHICENGFENBUYUQINGZANGGAOYUANDONGBEIBUKUANGUANGDIYUDEZANGZU——YUANGU“DONG”SHIQUNTI。

        LINGWAI,《CHANGYONGWUXINGSUANBAOPING(འབྱུང་རྩིས་ཉེར་མཁོ་བུམ་བཟང་།)》ZHONGYEMINGWENJIZAI,YUANGU“DONG”SHIQUNTICONGGUJIUYOUCHONGSHANGLUWEI“LA”SHOUDECHUANTONG,ERZHEIYIRANBAOCUNZAI“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUYUANGULIUCHUANXIADEHENDUOGUSHIZHIZHONG,TIXIANLEERZHEGONGTONGDEZANGZULISHIWENHUAYUANYUAN。PIRU,BEIXUEJIEGUANZHUDEPUMIZUCHUANTONG《SHIBISHALUGE》,YEGENGUANGWEIRENZHIDEZANGZU《སྲིད་པའི་བ་ཆུང་བཤས་པ།(SHIBISHAXIAONIUZHIGE)》ZAIWENBENNEIRONGHETEZHENGSHANGJIBENYIZHI。LIANGGEGUSHIZHONGDE“NIU”YU“LU”DEQUBIE,ZHUYAOGENGEZUQUNCHUANTONGDE“LASHOU(བླ་ཟོག)”XINYANGYOUGUAN。

尚品棋牌        3.YUYAN

尚品棋牌        ZAIWOGUOMINZUSHIBIEDEXIANJUETIAOJIANZHONG,YUYANSHIZHONGYAODECANKAOBIAOZHUNZHIYI。ZAI《YUNNANSHAOSHUMINZUSHIBIEBAOGAO》ZHONGXIEDAO:“DIANXIBEIDE‘XIFAN’ZUYUXIKANGSHENGJINGNEIDE‘XIFAN’ZUJINYIBUBIJIAOHOUKEKAOLVWEIDANYIMINZU。ZAIYUYANSHANG,YUNNANLANPING、NINGLANGXIFANYUYUZHONGDIANZANGYUJINYOU12.3 % XIANGJIN,BUTONGZHICHUZHAN87 % ,ERQIE‘XIFAN’YUYUFAYOUDUTEDEXIANXIANG,XINGTAIBIANHUAJIAODUO,YUZANGYUBUTONG。”FEIXIAOTONGXIANSHENGYICIWEIYOUTICHU“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEJIARONGZANGZU、BAIMAZANGZUDOUBUGAISHIZANGZUDEGUANDIAN。ZAIJIANGUOZHICHUDELISHITESHUJIEDUANHEJIANKUTIAOJIANXIA,XUEZHENENGGOUZAIMINZUSHIBIEGONGZUOZHONGZUODAOQUANFANGWEIYANJIU,SHISHUHOURENWUFADADAODEGAODU,FEICHANGZHIDEZANSHANG。DANTONGSHI,YOUYUYANJIUZHEZISHENDEWENHUABEIJINGDENGZHUDUOYUANYIN,XIANGGUANYANJIUYENANMIANYILIUXIEXUYIHAN。XIANGGUAN“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUYUYANDEYUYINDUIBI,ZHIGUANZHULEFUJINZUQUNJIANDEHENGXIANGDUIBI,ERHUSHILEYUYANFAZHANDELISHIZONGXIANGYANJIU,ERWEILEJINYIBUJIASHENWOGUOGEMINZUHEZUQUNWENHUADEYANJIU,WOMENYOUYIWUZAIQIANRENDEYANJIUJICHUSHANGJIXUSHENRUTANJIU。

尚品棋牌       BIZHEZAIXUEXIDANGDIYUYANSHIFAXIAN,“PEIMI”ZANGZUDEYUYANYUSUOWEIDEZANGZUSANDAFANGYANYOUJIAODADECHABIE。DANGAIQUNTIYUYANZHONGCHULEYOUHENDUOXIANDAIHANYUCIHUIHEQITAZANGYUFANGYANZHONGSUOYONGDECIHUIZHIWAI,HAIYOUBUSHAOGUZANGWENZHONGCHUXIANDEJIBENCIHUI,RU“mu(མུTIAN)”、“ɬi(སླིYUELIANG)”、“dʐa(གཟའXING)”DENG。CILEICIHUIZAIJINZANGYUSANDAFANGYANZHONGSHAOJIAN,DANZHEIXIECIHUIZAIGUZANGWENHEGUXIANGXIONGYUZHONGHENCHANGJIAN。

       SHITAIANXIANSHENGGENJUJIARONGYUHEHUOERBAYU、QIANGYU、MUYAYU、XIXIAYUDENGYUYANXIANGGUANCIHUI,RENWEIJIARONGYUZAIXINGSHISHANGYUZANGWENSHILIAOZHONGBEICHENGWEIDONGSHIDEZUQUNYUYANYOUGUAN。TONGYANG,CHENZONGXIANGXIANSHENGYEZAI《DUNHUANGGUZANGWENPINXIEDE<NANYUXIEJUAN>SHOUDUANSHIYI》ZHONG,FAXIANLECONGBAILANGYU—NANYU—XIXIAYU—PUMIYUDENGYIMAIXIANGCHENGDEYUYANFAZHANLISHI,BINGTICHU“DONGXINGBULUOZAOQINJIMUYUGUNANQIAN”DEJIELUN。YINCI,WOMENCONGQUNTIYUYANFAZHANLISHIJIAODUYENENGKAOZHENG“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUSHUYUQUNTIZIWORENTONGSHANGDEYUANGU“DONG”SHIBUZUHOUYI。

尚品棋牌       CHULEQIANMIANSUOTIDAODEYUYINBIANHUAFANGMIANDEGUILVHEQICHUANTONGSHENGHUOXIANGGUANDECHANGYONGCIHUIZHONGCUNZAIDEGENZANGYUQITAFANGYANYIYANGDEBUSHAOCIHUIZHIWAI,“PEIMI”ZANGZUDEYUYANZAIYUFAJIEGOUSHANGYEGENQITAZANGYUFANGYANYEJIBENYIZHI,DOUSHIZHU+BIN+WEIDEJIEGOU。SUIRAN“PEIMI”ZANGZUYUYANZHONGDEGEZHONGZHUCIDEFAYINGENQITAZANGYUFANGYANBUTONG,DANDABUFENDOUNENGYOUQIDUIYINGDEYUFAGONGNENG。ZAIMINZUXIANGXIANGYUWENHUARENTONGZHONG,YUYANSHIZUIZHONGYAODEMEIJIE,DANSHIYIBANQINGKUANGXIAYUYANYINQIQIYUANBUYIKAOZHENG。RANER,CONGYUYINDUIBIYUSHULIZHONG,NENGZHAODAOQIYUYIN、YUYIFANGMIANDEXIANGSIYUTONGYUANZHICHU,JUTIJIANFULUER “MULITAOBACUNFANGYANYUZANGWENCIHUIDUIBI”。

       4.ZONGJIAO

尚品棋牌       ZAIZAOQIDEXIANGGUANYANJIUZHONG,BUSHAOXUEZHEDUIGAIQUNTIDEZONGJIAOFANGMIANYEYOUYANJIU,DABUFENXUEZHEZHICAIYONGWENHUA“TAZHE”DESHIJIAO,BINGWEIYIWENHUACHIYOUZHEDENEIBUYANGUANGDUIGAIDIQUZANGZUHEXIONGDIGEMINZUQUNTIZONGJIAOJINXINGDINGWEIHECHANSHI。RUYOUXUEZHEBA“LAMA(བླ་མBla Ma)”HE“HANGUI(སྔགས་གྱེརSngags Gyer)”DENGBENQUNTIDUIZONGJIAORENSHIDECHENGHUSHIWEIZONGJIAOCHENGWEIGUILEI,HAIYOUYIXIEXUEZHEJIANG“SHIBI(སྲིད་པ)”DENGJUTIJIAOPAINEIRONGKANCHENGYIGEZONGJIAOLEIBIE。

       BIZHEZAICAIFANGPUMIZUHE“PEIMI”ZANGZUZHUDUO“HANGUI”HOUDEZHI,ZAI“HANGUI”WENHUAZIWORENTONGSHANG,BUCHENGRENTAMENSUOCHUANCHENGDEZONGJIAOWEI“HANGUIJIAO”。DUICI,PUMIZUHANGUIWENHUAYANJIUXUEHUIDE“HANGUIJIAO”LAOSHI、DUOJIPINCUOLAORENTEBIEJIANGDAO:“ZAIPUMIYULI‘HANGUI’YOUCHENG‘HANJI’,SHIZANGWEN‘སྔགས་གྱེར།(SONGZHOU)’YICIDEFANGYANDUYIN。‘HANGUIJIAO’SHIXUEZHEMENJINQICHUANGZUODEJIAOPAIMINGCHENG,WOMEN‘HANGUI’DUIZIJISUOCHUANCHENGDEZONGJIAOGENBENBUJIAO‘HANGUIJIAO’。SHIJISHANG,‘HANGUI’HAIFEN‘QUHANGUI’HE‘BENHANGUI’,FENBIEZHIDESHICHUANTONGDENINGMAPAIHEBENJIAODECHUANCHENGREN,ERBUSHIZHIMOUGEZONGJIAO。YOUYUQIANLAICAIFANGDEDABUFENXUEZHEBUDONGZANGWEN,ERQIEXIANZAIPUMIZUSHIGEDULIMINZU,RENMENJIAOWEISUIYIDIJIANG‘HANGUI’CHUANCHENGDEZONGJIAOSHIZUOYIGEXINDEZONGJIAO。”(2014NIAN10YUE5RICAIFANGJILU)LINGWAI,CONGXIANGGUANZONGJIAOYISHIHEJINGSHUNEIRONGSHANGKAN,“PEIMI”ZANGZUHEPUMIZUDUOSHU“HANGUI”SUOCHUANCHENGDESHIBENJIAO,ERQIEHENDUOBENJIAO“HANGUI”JINGSHUSHIBENJIAOJIUCHENGLILUNZHONGZUOWEISIGENBUCHENGDE“SHIXIN”HUO“SHIBEN”DENEIRONG,QIWENHUAXINXILISHIFEICHANGYOUJIU,ZHIDEBEIZANGXUEYANJIUZHEZHONGSHI。

       三、总结

尚品棋牌       MINZUSHIRENLEISHEHUILISHIFAZHANDETESHUCHANWU。ZUOWEIYONGYOUYIDINGGONGTONGWENHUATEXINGDESHEHUIQUNTI,GEMINZU“XIANGXIANGDEGONGTONGTI”DELISHIGOUCHENGSHIDUOYANGDE,BIAOXIANYUMINZUNEIBUYUWAIBU、ZIWOYUTAZHEDENGBUTONGSHIJIAODELISHIXUSHI。YANJIUGEMINZUHEDIFANGXINGQUNTILISHIWENHUA,CHULEYIYOUWENSHIZILIAOZHIWAI,HAIYINGGAIZHONGSHIQUNTINEIBUDEGEZHONGLISHIXUSHU。

尚品棋牌       JIZAI“PEIMI”ZANGZULISHIDECHULEYOUXIANGGUANHANWENSHILIAO,HAIYOUQUNTINEIBU“ZHILUJING”、“ZUPU”DENGKOUSHUHEZANGWENSHUXIEZILIAO。YIHANWENSHILIAOYANJIU,“PEIMI”ZANGZUSHUYU“XIFAN”、“XIFAN”、“XIQIANG”DENGBUTONGLISHIJIEDUANDEZUQUNFANCHOU,ERCONGBENQUNTIZIWORENZHISHANGKAN,TAMENYUPUMIZUTONGSHUGUDAI“BUQUDONG”DEHOUYI,GENJUZANGZULISHISHILIAO,“BUQUDONG”SHIZANGZUYUANGU“SIDAZHUYAOSHIZU”ZHIYI。

       DUIMINZULISHIJINXINGZHUIGENSUYUAN、KAOCHAQIWENHUAZUOWEISHENGWUYINSUDEDUOZHONGWAIZAIBIAODA,XUYAOJIEHEWENHUA“ZIWO”HE“TAZHE”DEBUTONGSHIJIAO,YIBIANYANJINDEDUIDAIQIDUOYANGXINGYUCHAYIXING。CONGZIWOSHIJIAOGUANZHI,SUIRANPUMIZUHEZANGZUSHUYUBUTONGDEMINZU,DANSHIZAIQILISHIFAZHANZHONGCUNZAITONGGENTONGYUANDELISHIGUANXIHETONGZHIXINGDEWENHUAJIZHI。TEBIESHIPUMIZUYU“PEIMI”ZANGZUZAIYUYAN、ZONGJIAO、WENHUASHANGDEXIANGSIXINGHEFEIJUEYUANXING,BUJINSHUOMINGLEBUTONGMINZUYOUZHEDUTEDELISHIFAZHANHEWENHUAJILEI,HAISHUOMINGLEBUTONGMINZUJIANDEKEGUANLISHIYUANYUANHEWENHUATONGZHITEZHENG。ZAIZANGXUEYANJIULINGYUZHONG,DUI“PEIMI”ZANGZUYIJIXIANGLINMINZUDECHUANTONGYUYAN、LISHI、ZONGJIAOJINXINGKAOCHA,JIANGYOUZHUYUWOMENLEJIEZANGZUYUANGULISHIWENHUATEZHENG,BINGLEJIEYIJIYUZHOUBIANXIONGDIMINZUZHIJIANDEGUANXI。( ZUOZHE:WANDEJIA,BOSHI,SICHUANDAXUEWENXUEYUXINWENXUEYUAN)

尚品棋牌YUANKANYU《ZHONGGUOZANGXUE 》2016NIANDI2QI

尚品棋牌